Callus culture: Callus culture may be defending as production and maintenance of an unorganized mass of proliferative cells from an isolated plant cell, tissue or organ by growing them on artificial nutrient medium in glass vials under controlled aseptic conditions.

Organ culture: The maintenance or growth of tissue, organ primordial, or the parts or whole of the organ in such a way as to allow differentiation or preservation of the architecture or function. The organ culture refers to the in vitro culture and maintenance of an excised organ primordial or whole or part of an organ in way and function.


Single-cell culture: Single-cell culture is a method of growing isolated single cell aseptically on nutrient medium under controlled condition.

Suspension culture: Suspension culture is a type of culture in which a single cell or small aggregates of cells multiply while suspended in the agitated liquid medium. Suspension cultures are used in the induction of somatic embryos and shoots, production of secondary metabolites, in vitro mutagenesis, selection of mutants and genetic transformation studies.

Embryo culture: Embryo culture may be defined as aseptic isolation of embryo (of different developmental stages) from the bulk of maternal tissue of mature seed or capsule and in vitro culture under the aseptic and controlled physical condition in glass vials containing nutrient solid or liquid medium to grow directly into plantlet.

Anther culture: Androgenesis is the in vitro, development of haploid plants originating from potent pollen grains through a series of cell division and differentiation.

Pollen culture: Pollen culture is the in vitro technique by which the pollen- grains (preferably at the microscope stages) are squeezed from the intact anther and then cultured on the nutrient medium where the microspores without producing male gametes.

Somatic Embryogenesis: Somatic embryogenesis is the process of a single or group of cells initiating the development pathway that leads to reproducible regeneration of non-zygotic embryos capable of germinating to form complete plants.

Protoplast Culture: It is the culture of isolated protoplasts which are naked plant cells surrounded by plasma membrane which is potentially capable of cell wall regeneration, cell division, growth and plant regeneration on suitable medium under aseptic condition

Shoot tip and meristem culture: The tips of shoots (which contain the shoot apical meristem) can be cultured in vitro, producing clumps of shoots from either axillary or adventitious buds. This method can be used for clonal propagation.

Explant Culture: There are a variety of forms of seed plants viz., trees, herbs, grasses, which exhibit the basic morphological units i.e. roots and leaves. Parenchyma is the most versatile of all types of tissues. They are capable of division and growth.

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