Teaching methods and strategies
Teaching methods and strategies Many educational psychologists and educators believe that learning situations should be organized so that each student can work and learn based on his or her abilities. In order to achieve this goal, individual education methods are very suitable because, in these types of methods, students are progressing according to their abilities, and the teacher takes less time to teach and spend more time on the individual’s disciples. Of course, the first and foremost step in achieving this goal is to accept the concept of a student in design and education. In many cases, the achievement of educational goals through individual education is much easier and more feasible than traditional methods, especially if the individual education approach is applied correctly, students’ autonomy in implementing the plan small and large can be strengthened. Individual training does not necessarily mean the training of a student by a particular teacher. Individual training may also be done in a group. Of course, when training individually for the design team, we’re a group of students that are common features, by training them. The methods of teaching individually in terms of their implementation and teaching materials are:
Methods of teaching individual (individual instruction)
– Programming (PI); (programmed instruction)
Computer Training (CAI); (computer-assisted instruction)
– Individually administered instruction (IPI); (individually prescribed instruction)
– Individually guided education (IGE);
All of the above methods are rooted in the curriculum. These methods have been introduced in educational systems since the development of educational materials technology.
The purpose of the training individual
As the methods of lecture and group discussion are suitable for certain educational goals, in many cases it is necessary for students to work alone, but at what times are these occasions? Or at what time can a student be allowed to perform educational activities with a set of printed materials or training programs? The answer to such questions requires the recognition of their educational goals and their analysis, but what individual pursuit of individual education is as follows:
Observe the difference between the individual
Individualizing education is one of the most important Teaching methods and strategies phenomena of recent years in educational systems. Many teachers and educators have doubted the effectiveness of traditional methods and expressed their dissatisfaction. This dissatisfaction was partly due to individual differences between the students. Individual differences, at least since the 1920s, have been attended by many educators, because in those years, having performed various tests, they found the difference in students’ intelligence. It is natural that the individual differences make the work of the teacher and the teacher very difficult and difficult in the traditional and usual ways. Individual differences, the method of lecture, and even the method of group discussion, in which a single subject is implemented in a specific way for everyone, is clearly questioned. If class differences are not taken into account, fatigue, hatred, and hatred of educational activities will be strengthened. A natural solution to such a problem is the use of individual teaching methods or student classifications based on abilities. Of course, it should be noted that individually structured training techniques can solve the problem of students’ fixed characteristics, but they are never able to solve their variable variables; for example, students may have the same ability in a particular subject, but have different perceptions and gain And the answer to an apprentice may not be satisfactory for another student, even in a group.
The growth of independence in practice and learning
Apart from being in solitary education, students can learn from their own talents to achieve educational goals by learning how to learn independently; that is, in individual teaching, learners learn how to learn and this is one of the most important educational goals. Because students should be able to continue learning after leaving school.
Used to study
Typically, teachers and students expect to learn more when they work alone at school or at home. This goal is usually achieved through individual education, and students learn more about this method. Getting more information gives satisfaction to educational activities and, as a result of the continuation of the activity, the student becomes accustomed to study, and the continuation of this practice will strengthen the habit of studying.
Creating Skills in Study
The teacher can add to the student’s skills during the study by presenting the correct methods. Robinson proposed a survey method (SQ3R, survey, question, read, recite, review) in 1970. The steps are:
A – Glossary: studying titles and reminding past information.
B- Question (creating questions in mind); That is, returning book titles to questions that may have to be answered.
(C) Reading (reading); That is, reading the exact text to find answers to questions.
D-reading, that is, an attempt to find more precise answers to questions without using the book.
Reviewing; Reviewing notes and remembering important points.
Reading the guidance of the independent
The teacher may assign a comprehensive assignment to those days or weeks. He may exempt the student from attending an official class for doing so. This type of training provides a context for self-directed and independent study. With regard to observing 150 students, researchers have found that learning opportunities are becoming more prominent when students’ educational activities are valued, and students make more systematic work. In addition, they are encouraged to use resources, and as a result, learning will be better and more than what the students had. (pp. 518-519; Gage, NL ans David Berliner – 1979). For independent study, teachers often have to make some points for students:
A. The topic of training.
B. A way for students to obtain the necessary information or skills.
C) Resources used.
D) Steps to do the job in the run.
Time is the case.
And the method of evaluation of work.
Chlorine layout and its various levels
In 1968, an exciting article on individual education by FAS Chlorine was released. This article was a revitalization for individual education at colleges and universities. By 1975, about 2,000 lessons were organized according to the Clare plan. Clare’s plan divides one unit into 15-30 sections. Students study each department and then take an exam in that field and, if successful in the exam, will continue the next section. The basis for work in the Clare plan is:
Progress on the basis of individual ability
Learning to the point of mastery
Techniques and complementary techniques along with traditional teaching
Progress on the basis of individual ability
The student can study the sections according to his ability and time. Whenever she feels she has learned the subject, she will be ready to take the exam. The privilege of this approach is that the student’s progress and degree of learning are not related to the work of their other colleagues, and everyone develops on the basis of their ability to study and learn.
Learning to the point of mastery
Until the student has mastered the desired section, he can not start new content. Meanwhile, there are no penalties for his failure. This method requires that parameter tests be made since there is the possibility of exam refreshing. In this way, the student continues to study and test so that he can reach an acceptable level of learning. An acceptable criterion is usually 80 to 90 percent of the correct answer.
Many advanced students can help novice students in a variety of areas, such as solving problems, talking about the subject, demonstrating the use of specific tips and encouragement and support.
The study guide outlines the objectives of the various units and offers suggestions for study. In addition, he refers to available resources, describes the experiences and possible plans, and provides a test sample.
Techniques and complementary techniques along with traditional teaching
Lectures, films, television, the film stretches, conferences, etc. may be designed to stimulate and explain educational materials, but not as traditional as they are. The student’s presence in such programs is voluntary.
Learning to limit the dominance of (individual) (mastery learning)
One of the most successful techniques in learning to learn is the mastery of learning. As previously mentioned in the Keller plan, the student must have mastered the content of education before he or she continues to develop. The theory of learning was dominated by Bloom in 1968 and Block in 1971. According to this theory, the learning and educational progress of learners largely depends on the time of learning (1963), (Carroll-Carroll). According to Carroll, the main indicator is the student’s talent for time. According to his theory, the amount of people learning according to this formula is calculated:
(Time required for learning/time spent learning) F = learning amount
Teachers in ordinary classes limit the time to study a course unit. They do not give them the time each student needs to learn, and they consider the same time for everyone. This will make poor students achieve lower marks in the test of academic progress, and vice versa, strong students in such exams achieve grades 80 and 90, and even sometimes 100% because they have the time to master and complete learning, enough time and even more time Have. Of course, teaching quality is also very important. If the level of teaching quality is not high, students will need more time, and if the teaching method is good and excellent, less time will be needed to learn to master it. Having motivation plays an important role in the continuation and completion of educational activities.
(a / h) * F = learning amount
Motivation * Time to learn = a
Ability to understand teaching * Quality of teaching * Time required to learn = h
Bloom and others have developed this theory by designing the student’s time, motivation, teaching quality and ability to understand the teaching, learning and academic achievement of students. Bloom believed that only 5 to 10 percent of the students in a class could not score A or B with enough time. In his opinion, the learning skill influences the concept of the students themselves. In this way, the students find their worth and make sure that they have the basics of success. Understanding public skills lead to renewal and confidence and self-confidence in students, and this is very effective for students’ mental well-being. Therefore, learning as one of the strongest sources of mental health is one of the most powerful sources of mental health, and if students are trained in this way, they will need fewer therapies and co-therapies.
The learning method to the degree of mastery of the value of private teaching methods is well represented. This method proves that the teaching of one person to another makes adjustment of educational activities more relevant to the needs of the student, and the teacher tries to adjust his teaching methods based on individual differences. Creating small-group meetings, side-by-side tutorials, teaching programs and games, and private tutoring will help the student to understand educational concepts. The similarity of the learning method to the mastery of Clare’s design is that both private tutoring and other individual and independent teaching methods pay particular attention, and they consider these methods in terms of feedback and teaching time, with completely different traditional methods.
Private tutoring (tutoring)
One of the other types of individual teaching methods is the private teaching method. This method can be applied at all levels of study. The core of the work in this type of education is to pay attention to the fields, interests and personal abilities of the students, and the individual student who can not usually achieve success in group training.
In most educational programs, instead of using a teacher, students are usually used. In this case, the teacher is not a specialist teacher with skill, but only may have more than a few years of student experience or may be an adult who has not received any special training in the field before receiving the program. In this case, the purpose of teaching, in addition to helping the student, is to help the learner as well, since teaching activities in private tutoring also reinforce a part of the teacher’s skills. However, in private tutoring, the teacher must have a set of positive reinforcement factors. In this way, most students experience the imagination of failure, and if their training does not work out, another unsuccessful experience will be added to their previous experiences and may lose their confidence in their academic progress; therefore, the teacher must be respected Counting and giving value to the student creates a sincere and warm educational environment and should not compare his student with other students, but should compare his progress with his past work and if his educational progress is even lower than usual, But it has grown much more than before, and should be encouraged. Educational sessions should be short enough to allow the student to be tired, hated or hated.
The educational environment should be organized comfortably, with pleasure and appropriate to the age and educational status of the individual. The teacher should try to make her relationship with a pleasant and positive student. Most teachers instruct them to encourage their students to say that the topics and assignments provided are easy, do not worry, but it is advisable not to tell the student that the tasks are easy, but to say that the task or problem is relatively difficult but practical Is. In this case, if the student succeeds, he will find confidence and the rewards will be greater, and if he is likely to fail, his confidence will not be lost.
The training program of (PI)
In 1954, a new theory and promise emerged in the field of education. Skinner analyzed an existing study of teaching and learning in schools in a well-known article titled Learning Science and Art, and suggested ways to treat it. Skinner found new findings in his experiments with his mice and his pigeons, and based on the findings, he proposed training programs.
Education is a syllabus of an individual education system that tries to coordinate learning with the needs of students. This method is based on a set of behavioral goals and is, in fact, an application of learning psychology in teaching. In this way, educational materials are divided into small units that are called frame or frame. At each step, a task has been identified that must be achieved through its implementation of the objective of the behavior of that framework. These steps are based on the student’s prior knowledge, as each step adds new information to the student’s prior knowledge. The steps and steps should be programmed to bring the student closer to the ultimate goal. We can consider the merits of training programs in a number of contexts:
Firstly, at each turn, the student’s attention is focused on a small amount of learning material; secondly, with the student activated in answering each question, learning is facilitated; thirdly, the student is reinforced by immediate receipt (feedback), or he can correct his mistakes Finally, in such a way, the student moves forward based on his ability and learning path. In order to provide curriculum content, first, the learning objectives must be defined explicitly and explicitly and then divided into a set of related assignments. The steps taken should be based on the construction of the classification of learning objectives. In terms of content setup, program training can be provided either in a linear program or in a branching program.
Training programs of line
In the teaching of linear programming, the steps involved in a program are linearly followed, and the student must study all the steps and go one step further, and studying and understanding one step involves learning all the materials incorporated in all the steps that precede From it.
Principles important in program planning line
1 The student will actively participate in the program and study and answer.
2 Early answers should be correct and avoid false answers, because, as Skinner says, the wrong answer may endanger learning.
Feedback should be given immediately after each activity.
4 The program should have a logical course and be easy to set up.
At every step, the stimulus-response relationship should not be directly addressed to the students but should guide them to discover the relationship themselves.
5 At every step, the stimulus-response relationship should not be directly addressed to the students but should guide them to discover the relationship themselves.
6 The student must go all the steps and walk one step further.
7 Steps should be very short.
8 Steps should be set up to understand the content rather than memorize them.
Training programs in the field of
In the branch program, once the student has studied one step, one must be able to answer the question of the contents of the previous step by choosing one of the suggested answers. If the student’s answer to the steps is correct, he will continue to work more difficult and more advanced tasks in line, and if his answer is false, he will be taken straight out of the line and transferred to the lateral steps. In these types of programs, the straight line steps are called the framework, and the lateral steps or splits are called compensatory frameworks. The purpose of the compensatory steps is to allow the student to correct the mistake by receiving additional materials and return to the main step after studying and correcting the mistake.
Profile program of the branch of
1 The steps and steps of the program are longer than the linear program.
2 The steps are such that in case of failure, the student is directed to the branches to correct the mistake.
3 All students do not read all the parts of the program.
Training to the computer (CAI)
Computers used in education are called teaching machines. In this way, the teaching method of the program is provided by the machine; therefore, teaching with the teaching machine is the same program teaching, with the difference that in teaching the printed program, the student pays for the contents of the content and the amount of material that he is studying at the discretion But in educational machines, progress in study is controlling the car, and only when the student succeeds in one stage of education allows him to progress and receive new materials; therefore, CAI training machines are devices that train Provide them on a regular basis and provide student and feedback activities De facto and individual training. Educational machines are based on Skinner’s theories and all the principles of active conditionalization are used. The characteristics of teaching machines are summarized as follows:
1 It responds instantly.
2 The student follows the program according to his talent and ability.
3 Concepts are arranged with a logical garage.
4 The questions are in a chain of relationships.
5 The student can continue to attend the program if he has learned the previous steps.
6 Information about student responses is maintained.
7 Information is provided through non-verbal (images, diagrams, and moving pictures) to students.
8 Unlike humans, the car does not have anxiety and discomfort, such as being indecent.
It should be noted that self-driving machines themselves are not worthy, what is important and worth is a program given to a machine. If the program is poor and the principles of learning and teaching are not met, the educational goal will not be provided. In addition, the car can never be a successor to the teacher, with all its benefits, and the teacher will always have a critical role in his education, because he, in addition to training, also establishes an emotional and human relationship with the student, while the car is unable to establish such a relationship. Is. Perhaps in some cases, such as the education of mentally retarded, socially disadvantaged, slow and slow learners, which require more patience, the machine can play a better role, but the remarkable point is that their social and human relationships are more important than their education And the teacher can help them establish such relationships, while the car only plays their educational role.
Training individually prescribed by (IPI)
In this way, each lesson is divided into smaller units, and each unit is scheduled for a teaching session. In order for schools to recognize the position of their students, they initially conduct a diagnostic assessment of the student in order to determine the starting point of their activity based on the degree of the student. The teacher determines the appropriate subject for the student, and the student usually starts the activity on the subject on its own. When the learning of that unit ends, the student passes a test that is part of that unit, or the teacher tests for him, and the test result is immediately announced after the analysis, and if he reaches the desired level, the next unit will be presented to him. Such activity is repeated every day and completes almost half of the student’s time. The rest of the day’s teaching time is devoted to traditional activities, including participation in group discussions, sports, hymn, and art. In this way, each student moves according to his ability.
Competition among students in this way is minimized and eliminated, and actively and fully engaged in their learning tasks, rather than being silent while waiting for the students to stay active. The evaluation criterion is very high at the level so that the student can take a higher level if he has 80% of the learning. In this type of training, taking the exam is taught to master the content, not to be better than others. In this type of training, if a student, for example, has read the theory of second year algebra, he is allowed to participate in the third year of algebra, while in such ordinary schools such facilities do not exist until the beginning of the next school year; for example, a third year student Guidance may be theoretical in the second year of theoretical mathematics, the British first year theory or the fourth year’s social education.
The role of the teacher in training individually prescribed by (IPI)
In this way, the teacher does not have the role of transmitting information, but its role is variable, and the coaching of a class of 30 is transformed into a decision maker of individual learning styles and issues. In this method, the role of the teacher is more of an analyst of the test data and results of the assessment and determines the students’ level of education. He is the one who, by presenting the results, directs the students into the educational process, solves their problems.
Many critics of this approach believe that some reading or mathematical materials are too complicated and require much work and are expensive for educational systems. Meanwhile, the concept of the students themselves in the IPI method is controlled by students in other ways. A group also believes that the concept – itself in this method is low but realistic. Ohanian (1971), a new technology critic, points to several educational risks with the IPI method and states: “Students, especially those who are moderate in terms of speed and ability, may have less contact with other students at school, and therefore, in Social interactions are in trouble. Ohanian believes that in this way, the duties of the teacher are not similar to teaching and educational activities. In his view, good education always rests on humans, not educational materials; in other words, public opinion should focus on the fact that the student, instead of thinking about what to learn, thinks about how to learn.
Training individually guided by (IGE)
Individually guided teaching is one of the other methods of individual education. This method is used to educate teachers, guide students’ future plans for the teacher, test their innovations, and guide the research and development of students. These types of schools are not classed as ordinary schools so that students of different levels can participate in a department, and each department is run in a group training or by a group of 2 or 3 teachers working together. In each unit, teachers have different duties, responsibilities, and powers, and act in accordance with the diagnostic-prescriptive method used in the IPI method.
Class of free base (nongraded classes)
Unconfirmed classes allow students to continue their activities at school, for example, students who have completed their course in December can go to class without interruption in the course of the month.
Education group (team teaching)
Group education is a method used by several teachers to work together to improve their individual work and to educate a large number of students. They plan and execute a group of projects. Each unit consists of several sections. A team includes a group of teachers who analyze their students’ information and decide on their educational goals. In this way, each teacher feels that he has used his friends and their facilities better, and has more time to prepare, and only when he needs to spend on all the students.
Teaching people the role of different (differentiated staffs)
In a training team, all members play a decisive and complementary role. All members decide in the same way, but they may offer different roles and responsibilities. The main responsibility of the activity lies with the leader of the group, and the teaching group is assisted by the bookkeepers, teacher teachers and students of teacher education schools – each with a specific role. Paying salaries is different according to the duty of individuals. One of the benefits of this approach is that the best teachers can be single members and earn more than other teachers. This difference in law makes teachers better and more responsive to the students and is superior to the way that the teacher is forced into forced labor and has to work outside the classroom to find more money.
Group of the age difference (multiage grouping)
In this way, students of each class are composed of different age groups, and in fact, this method is a combination of different age groups and private education. The use of different and complementary age groups in a class enhances the development of a broad-based private education program. This method is for the benefit of both students of the age group (ages and ages) and as an individual teaching method. In this method, by performing a diagnostic test, the position of each student is determined, and the behavioral goals and learning pathways are divided among the students; for example, reading, watching a film or writing on this basis. Final exam or any kind of assessment of educational progress and each student reaches and pursues educational goals with his or her ability and speed.
The difference between the individual
The individually guided educational system thoroughly takes into account the student’s individual differences and plans for educational activities on this basis. In this way, students may be grouped according to their talents, learning speed or learning, creativity, passion, and other characteristics, for example, a learner may be very dynamic and dynamic, and needless tutor guidance, or maybe Learn, learn and touch more. In such cases, the teacher must determine which of the theoretical courses or practical tasks are better and more effective for a particular student. In summary, when determining the course unit, the learning method should be based on the characteristics of the students. Different types of this method have been described and prescribed, but evaluation methods have not been developed in this way. Although this is an ideal and desirable approach, its implementation is still limited.
Evaluation of IGE-CAI-IPI
Evaluating any of the new methods mentioned is not easy. It is often questioned whether students learn more from these new education programs than other students trained in traditional controlled classes. In response, it can be said that at some levels of education, some students learn better than students in traditional classes, but this is not true at all levels and with any teacher. The results of Walker and Schaffarzik’s Schaffarzik (1974) show that both the traditional and individual learning outcomes, whether computer-based or non-computerized, are ambiguous and ambiguous. Each program may be preferred in one aspect to another. Many of the programs may, in some respects, have a common impact. The two factors of content and emphasis on student learning are very effective. The concepts that are emphasized in the program are more absorbed and learned. These results guide us to reconsider the question of which method is most effective. What needs to be further examined in the analysis of revision methods is whether new methods can perfectly meet educational goals? Does the training take place in a suitable and encouraging environment? Is training really done individually in these ways? Are the students satisfied with this method? Are values and educational goals reasonable? Do teachers work enthusiastically? And finally, is it worth the lesson learned with individual teaching? These questions may not help teachers, but they allow planners and educators to know the extent to which the claims made in opposition or agreement with them correspond to reality. Can new methods perfectly fulfill educational goals? Does the training take place in a suitable and encouraging environment? Is training really done individually in these ways? Are the students satisfied with this method? Are values and educational goals reasonable? Do teachers work enthusiastically? And finally, is it worth the lesson learned with individual teaching? These questions may not help teachers, but they allow planners and educators to know the extent to which the claims made in opposition or agreement with them correspond to reality. Can new methods perfectly fulfill educational goals? Does the training take place in a suitable and encouraging environment? Is training really done individually in these ways? Are the students satisfied with this method? Are values and educational goals reasonable? Do teachers work enthusiastically? And finally, is it worth the lesson learned with individual teaching? These questions may not help teachers, but they allow planners and educators to know the extent to which the claims made in opposition or agreement with them correspond to reality.
Approach the issue of
The problem method, in fact, is a kind of comprehensive preparation for life, because life means confronting matters and trying to solve them. In this way, educational activities are arranged in such a way as to create a problem in the general mindset, and he will be interested in finding a solution to his problem with his own efforts. The problem approach may be implemented individually or collectively. Of course, it should be noted that the problem approach is completely different from traditional methods. This method is by no means a question and answer or a training solution; for example, the question is: how much does it cost to provide an apartment with an infrastructure of 125 square meters and a carpet with a price of about 50 thousand rials per square meter? It is not considered a matter at all because it is a question that only needs to be calculated, but that: A three bedroom apartment with 50 thousand dollars is a matter of fact, because solving it requires a variety of information about the equipment, dimensions, and types of rooms, prices and individual preferences. In the first example, the answer can be obtained by the given information, whereas in the second example, the answer is certain and the student must discover the solution. The first example is a mental problem that has nothing to do with life, but the latter has a purpose and is completely related to real life.
Terms implementation of the problem of
In the problem-solving process, the student must have the following conditions in order to solve the problem:
1 Attention to the issue. The focus is on any type of educational activity. If the student does not understand the problem and the problem is presented to him by the teacher, he will be in a state of imposition and the student will not be able to solve it or will not show a willingness to resolve it;
2 The power of knowing and understanding the problem;
3 Identify the features of the problem;
4 Preparation for problem-solving;
5 The power of setting possible solutions;
6 The power of experimenting and collecting information and analyzing them;
7 Judging by the experiment or information collected and accepting valid solutions and abandoning inappropriate hypotheses;
8 Generalization and application of the problem.
The environment and educational environment should be set in such a way that the student experiences and understands the problem. It will be possible for the student to have the power of analysis and deduction, as well as the ability to recognize the problem and its features, and thus, to predict possible solutions. The realization of such a process will be possible when the conditions for the creation of the problem are based on the pupil’s talent, ability, age, and scientific basis.
How to implement the method, the problem of
In the implementation of the problem method, there are usually two main methods:
(A) An analogous approach to a general one, such as whether the war is the main cause of social change;
(B) An inductive method from a partial to general, such as asking whether the causes of the historical revolutions are the same.
In the deductive method, the following steps should be followed:
1 Identify the issue.
2 Search and discover a solution.
3 Setting up a temporary theory.
4 Validity and validity of the theory by comparison with known facts.
5 Setting the final solution.
In the inductive method, the following steps should be taken into account:
1 Identify the issue.
2 Formation of hypothesis.
3 Search for information or perform tests.
4 Analyze information or test result.
5 Accepting the correct hypothesis and rejecting inappropriate hypotheses based on the analysis of the results.
6 Repeat experiment and generalization.
The problem approach is very similar to the five stages of Hobart’s training, that is, preparation, supply, comparison, generalization and adaptation.
In preschool schools, it is advisable to use more inductive method than the analogical method, although in the inductive method, the teacher’s activity and duties are very heavy, and he should supervise and direct the activity of the students on a regular basis. On the other hand, the student should be continuously aware of the method of study, research, and proper thinking.
The merits of the issue of
1 It links the activities of the school with the students’ real life.
2 Psychology is one of the best educational methods for creating scholarly thinking in students.
3 Because it is not firm and dry, it does not invulnerable, it provokes the students’ natural interest in the lesson.
4 It is almost adaptable to the classroom situation.
Restrictions on the way the issue of
1 Schools need more time than usual.
2 It requires experienced and familiar teachers with research methods.
3 It is time-consuming and it may not be possible to effectively implement this method in the light of current school curricula.
The method of units
The method of units consists of a series of activities that circle around a group of general concepts and are considered to be a general goal. All the materials are presented in the form of a problem and a problem in which various information and skills are mobilized from different dimensions for its solution, and the purpose of all of them is the central issue from which it arises. Solving each problem requires a range of information in different fields, all of which are in a single form and collectively constitute a single program; in other words, the methodology of units as a result of attention, concentration and activity in the field of a series of continuous issues, and The use of their connection with other issues – regardless of the spatial and formal separation of disciplines – arises. This attention is sometimes related to the subject matter; in this case, it is said to be the subject of the subject and may be combined in several topics of a discipline, such as life in the Safavid era, whose political, economic, social and cultural aspects are linked together. They may find that there is a direct connection between two or more fields, for example, when buying a car, what points should be found in which the disciplines of physics, chemistry, economics, and art are matched with each other. Sometimes, instead of focusing on the subject, attention will be paid to the student’s previous experiences and experiences for future experiences, which in this case will call it an empirical unit. Sometimes, the main attention is paid to the student’s activity and his inner motivation and the conclusion of his activity, which in this case calls it the unit of the design.
In the unit method, the activity plan is regulated by the teacher and administered by him/her. In the experimental unit method, the teacher and the student collaborate in the design of the project, but in its implementation, the duration and subject of the study can be changed and depends on the student’s ability and agreement with the teacher. In the design unit, logical regulation is not a significant issue, but the purpose of the student, his willingness and activity to achieve the educational goal is important.
Characteristics of the methods of Units
1 The unit must have a specific purpose or purpose.
2 The goal should be similar to real life, that is, the use of resources and resources to live in real life.
3 The unit must be united; it means that all its activities are related to an issue and subject.
4 In the implementation of the unit, one should try to use direct experiences.
5 The unit must have a definite start and end, and be flexible in the execution, according to the conditions and facilities.
6 The unit must be comprehensive.
7 The student should be the axis of activity; the single method should give the student the opportunity to plan and operate.
8 The unit must be a means of understanding and mastering the subject and the issue.
9 The method of the unit work must be distinct and diverse.
10 The single method should give students the opportunity to judge, select and measure.
11 The unit method should not be just an independent and separate subject in the curriculum, but each unit should be left to other units by which it can maintain or create the continuity of the program.
Procedures for the implementation of the unit method
The necessary matters for the preparation and design of educational units should be arranged in a number of stages on a regular basis and in a way that represents a logical thought. The steps mentioned should be arranged in such a way that each step is intended as the introduction or basis of the next step; in other words, the steps must be such that, in the event of neglecting one stage, it is not possible or difficult to get to the next stages.
In general, the steps to be taken to prepare and design an educational unit, regardless of subject matter, should be considered as follows:
1 Examine and identify needs. This stage consists of two parts:
A. Determine the overall objective of the unit.
B. Determine the title of the unit.
2 Detecting and Writing Behavioral Objectives.
3 Selecting and organizing content. This stage consists of four parts:
A. Select titles and topics.
B. Selecting the essential concepts.
C) Selection of resources.
D) Content organization.
4 Identify and organize learning experiences.
A. Introduction Unit.
B- The expansion of the unit and its analysis.
C) Specify the sequence of activities.
D-Specifying the unit’s application.
E-obtaining the total result.
5 Unit valuation.
6 Modification and continuity of the unit. Check the implementation of the unit for more coordination, balancing the removal or increase of items, and predicting and scheduling for subsequent units.
Subject unit method
The unit method examines the subjects studied as large units. In this way, the connection between different subjects and disciplines is usually horizontally; for example, in the cultural unit, art, literature, religion, and social conditions of a particular society can be studied in a given period and subject to lesson, or mathematics, physics and chemistry By matching the topic of the diesel car, they are horizontally related.
Characteristics of the methods of the subject
The unit method examines the subjects studied as large units.
Study on a series of related subjects, regardless of their contingent separation.
Types of educational experiences
Speeches as a guide to further study, diverse research, individual and sometimes collective work.
Setting up educational experiences
Relationships are more horizontally, but sometimes there may be a vertical connection.
Spend more time in planning by the teacher and sometimes with the student’s help.
Learning based on the general understanding of the various subjects is at the core of a major issue.
Interest in activity and enjoyment is based on reinforcement, and the reward and punishment factor is less pronounced.
Discipline is more internal, and individual and group responsibility is more in the way.
Study Students’ Experiences and Their Categorization. Of course, the exam may also be a part of the evaluation.
Limits of the subject matter method
1 Skilled and experienced teachers are needed. Since in the implementation of this method, more than any other person, the presence and guidance of the teacher is necessary, he needs to have his internal aspects in terms of thinking, tendencies and feelings, sufficient mastery of the various disciplines of the course and their relationship with other disciplines, and Awesome and artistic issues for effective guidance.
2 Maybe the parents of the school and the parents of the students disagree with the importance of this method.
3 It may not be as fitting as possible with school curricula.
4 It is necessary to work with other teachers, this requires to convince them of the importance and worthiness of this method.
5 In the early days of work, doing things is difficult on this basis; for that reason, it should start with an easy unit. The two designs of 40 and 41 represent two units of the subject.
Empirical unit method
The experimental unit method, which is one of the newest teaching methods, has not yet become fully public because its implementation requires a change in the school curriculum and teacher training. In this way, the relationship between the subject and the activities is horizontally and verbally and is the main point and center of activity of the willingness and experiences of the learners. A collaborative collaboration between learners, teachers, and between teachers and students is of particular importance; therefore, in each experimental unit, there must be close collaboration at all stages of the work, and most importantly, students simply do not remember to solve a problem, But they are continually seeking to solve many and varied issues.
Theory of teaching
Over the last twenty years, in the field of teaching, significant theories have been proposed and presented, many of which have been reviewed and revised by Gagne and Dick (1984). With all of these theories, it can be said that so far theorists have failed to present a coherent teaching theory.
These include Tennyson’s (1980) theory of teaching, Scandura’s (1977) theory of teaching theory and the theory of Landa (1976), and some others about how to teach and the theory of chassis ( Case (1978), which is used to teach pre-school children and kindergartens.
All the theories presented about teaching differ in kind, but nevertheless, all the different theories can be presented in a larger framework and under the guise of comprehensive teaching theory. The differences between the small and the smaller theories with the comprehensive theory can be either general or general, or the goals pursued, or both.
Comprehensive teaching theory can be useful for teachers and educators and help them in confronting theories that are unrelated to each other.
From teaching, as well as learning, there are many definitions. Some teach the teacher’s explicit pronouncement of what to learn, and others consider teaching as a cross-referencing process that takes place between the teacher and the student and the content in the classroom. A large number of educators and educators provide teaching and learning opportunities that make learning easy for students. From the examination of the totality of the definitions presented in this field, it can be concluded that teaching is an activity, but not any kind of activity, but an activity that is conscious and based on a particular purpose, an activity that is based on the students’ cognitive status and causes them to change. , Although still there are those who, according to traditional patterns and methods, refer to teaching only in the classroom’s activity and activity of the teacher.
In any case, if learning is to change learning in the behavior of the organism through experience, it is undoubtedly an activity that provides a place for change or creates a situation that makes the experience easy and causes the student to make the necessary change. As a result, the practice is to teach a series of regular, regular, targeted and pre-designed activities that aim to create the desired learning environment. An activity that takes place in the interaction and interaction between the teacher and the subject, that is, the characteristics and behavior of the teacher affect the activities and actions of the students, and vice versa, affect their characteristics and behaviors. This effect may occur independently or indirectly; in other words, teaching is the interaction or interaction between the teacher and the student, based on the regular and targeted design of the teacher to change the behavior of the student. This definition defines two specific qualities for teaching:
1 Existence of interaction or mutual interaction between teacher and student.
2 Purposeful of teacher activities.
Therefore, if the teacher’s activity in the class is not interrelated and based on a specific purpose, then the concept of teaching will not be applicable at all. Teachers can talk in a classroom or practice, but do not really teach in the real sense of the word because teaching is not taught to the dispersed and unilateral activities of the teacher that does not change students. Also, the kind of learning that is done through movies, TV, books, etc. does not refer to teaching, and films and books and TVs are also not teachers; or those who work side-by-side teaching work, such as those who arrange classroom instruction Prepares the goals of the class, or corrects the exam papers, it is not necessary to teach a teacher and teach him/herself. (Seif, Ali Akbar-1368)
Teaching involves different concepts, such as attitudes, tendencies, beliefs, habits, and behaviors, and in general, the kinds of changes we want to create in students. Changes in the aforementioned fields are not only different in terms of characteristics, but also different learning processes adapted to them; for example, teaching on emotional changes with teaching in cognitive or psychosocial fields is not the same. Research, exploration, research, experimentation and error, listening and reading are all different experiences that lead to learning and may occur in the teaching process, but the conditions for such an experience will not be the same.
An important point in the teaching process is that the teacher determines what should be learned so that educational content and activities are tailored to the students’ understanding and understanding. In fact, the following three points are necessary during the teaching process:
1 Teaching should have a goal.
2 The teaching method should be in accordance with the purpose and purpose, that is, the expression of what is to be learned.
3 Concepts can be presented in a way or conditions are provided in a way that is in accordance with the students’ understanding and ability.
Therefore, the teacher should note that the deliberate and deliberate design of the teaching activities will be the first step towards teaching based on purpose and purpose.
A prescriptive teaching theory
In the educational process and in certain circumstances, the goals may be in the sequence and in a consistent state, so that each goal is a means to achieve the next goal and the next goal is also a means to achieve its own goal. In this case, each of the educational objectives is based on the goal before itself, but the first objective. If in teaching, we will consider a certain goal – as the ideal state or the desired state – for the student, and if we know the state of his initial state, we can determine the subject matter; That is, what should be learned. The content of the lesson can be obtained by subtracting the desired mode (the ultimate goal of teaching) and the present state (input behavior). The content of the lesson can be broken down into smaller sections and objectives. After decomposing targets into smaller targets, sequencing takes place and, finally, a curriculum is developed.
From teaching goal to curriculum
The ultimate goal of teaching or optimal mode
The ultimate goal of teaching or desirability is determined by a set of assignments that require a foundation of specific knowledge and knowledge, and constructive thinking and certain cognitive processes. From the cognitive point of view, it is not enough to determine the ultimate goal of teaching according to the content of the theory or according to the behavior that the student presents at the end of the teaching process. The ultimate goal of teaching is to require a specific cognitive process. Therefore, the ultimate goal of teaching should be described in terms of three aspects:
A. The cognitive purpose can be considered as an appropriate and appropriate goal, and the goal is determined by the hands of skills that a person can do in the classroom. Such skills can be determined through the use of information about questioning theories (for example, mathematics or history) and using criterion and the interpretation of criterion referenced test, or the analysis of objective tests. In any case, the ultimate goal of teaching is determined by identifying the hands of the skills defined as classroom tasks and assignments.
B. Each category of these tasks and assignments requires specific intellectual and cognitive abilities. Knowledge and specific information is required for the assignment. This knowledge base can be determined by the necessary research methods. In addition, it should be noted that the basis of the knowledge of each person is his own special construction, which must be evaluated and evaluated.
C. Solving a set of assignments and performing a set of specific activities requires specific cognitive processes. Processes in a given set of homework can be identified through subjective or empirical analysis. An empirical analysis involves studying and researching the processes that have been proposed by specialists in solving the assignments. The mental analysis also involves constructing and creating a computational or minimal action, an initiative, and exploration in proportion to the solving of the homework.
Available Mode (Primary)
Educational activities are possible in order to achieve the ultimate goal of teaching, depending on the student’s basic condition (basic information). Understanding basic information is necessary to determine the content of the course. Standard-standard quizzes allow the teacher to identify the assignment assignments that the student is able to do. If the goal is to measure short-term memory or to measure specific skills, special ability tests can be used.
The practices that experts have used in evaluating cognitive structures and processes are appropriate for assessing students’ knowledge and cognitive needs. These practices, in some cases, also assess not only unknown students’ knowledge or processes, but also incorrect information, misconceptions, misconceptions, or inappropriate use of them.
Analyzing the content of the course and making the curriculum
General teaching objectives can be broken down into activities or detailed goals. In such a case, the individual can not only achieve a common goal but also possibly achieve different goals. In the breakdown of the goals, the overall objective relationship with the intent is one of the issues that should be considered and not forgotten when preparing the curriculum. Among the issues that are important in the context of the transformation and transfer of the goals to the inextricably interconnected, regular, and regular issues, one can mention a number of issues: the relationship between the minor goals, expectations and desires that, according to the individual goals of the students, the process and construction Students’ intellectual thinking and the likelihood of the impact of any particular objective in facilitating, prohibiting or inhibiting the realization of higher goals.
Application practice of teaching
The application of teaching practices can be considered in the following cases:
1 It is very useful to teach teaching to stimulate study and research that has the effects and consequences of education. If we consider teaching acts as necessary and necessary for learning, we must accept that without teaching activities, there is no possibility of learning in school. In addition, teaching actions can be used to analyze and generalize learning theories in different situations.
Recognizing teaching actions is effective not only in the type of activity of teachers, but also in the use of teaching materials, teaching conditions, and student activity, since, as Gage claims, research that reveals the causes and extent of teachers’ influence on the student, In the teaching process it is most important.
2 Teaching actions are effective in teaching design. Understanding the scientific basis and the input behavior of students, the conditions in which teaching actions are effective, and the data that determine the ultimate goal of teaching, can all be effective in the design of educational design.
3 Teaching actions can be used to select teaching methods and practices; for example, the following two methods of teaching, lecture, and group discussion have been investigated. The + sign represents the relationship between a hypothetical goal with the hypothetical student and also indicates the ways in which learning actions can be achieved through them. If the symbols in the table are proved and accepted in the course of research and testing, one can conclude that the combination of the lecture method with a guided discussion is a great way in teaching based on the goal.
Selecting a suitable teaching method (teaching methodologies list)
|Teaching activities||Lecture||Guided group discussion|
|Flow of information||+ +|
|Storage and compensation||+ +|
|data transfer||+ +|
|Control and hijacking||+||+|
Factors affecting the teaching
Teaching is not easy. The teacher deals with different variables in teaching. He tries to manipulate and control various variables, creating a situation where learning can be achieved. Knowing and controlling all the factors and variables involved is not easy, and perhaps impossible to say. Undoubtedly, in creating a learning environment, factors such as the characteristics of the teacher and the student, the construction of the educational system, educational content and dozens of other variables can be effective. Obviously, the teacher can not control all of these factors. It may be asked if the control of all of the above factors is not possible, how can the teacher create favorable conditions with respect to the interference of multiple and uncontrollable variables. In answer to such a question, it is true that the teacher can not control all the variables involved, but knowing such factors will enable him to make informed decisions about the teaching activities.
Characteristics of personality and science teacher
The teacher is the most important factor in creating a desirable position for the realization of educational goals. He can even compensate for the flaws in books and the lack of educational facilities, or, conversely, turn the best teaching position into an inability to create a desirable emotional connection to an inactive or unattractive environment. In the teaching process, only the experiences and scientific views of the teacher are effective, but his entire personality, which affects the learning and transformation of the student. The teacher’s viewpoint and the philosophy he believes in will have a profound effect on how he works, insofar as he removes him from a person who is only proficient in teaching, and he thinks like a human being that he is responsible for the great training of human beings.
Features of the personality of teachers and the role of the teaching
In this section, we first examine the personality traits of the teachers and then the influence and role of their behavior in the teaching process. In the process of this study, we will focus more on analyzing the teacher’s attitudes and relationships towards the students and dividing them into two groups.
Teachers are students
This group of teachers places students at the heart of their work and sees them as the main focus of educational activities. They consider the students’ activities and the immensity of their development, and they use material lessons and knowledge transfer to nurture them. This group, in general, has a great deal of passion for fostering students’ talent. Of course, one should not think that other teachers do not pay attention to the students, but it can be said that these teachers are more likely to consider the students than their students, and their behavior towards the students is such that the attention of each observer in his first encounter Attracts
Teachers of the curriculum, if they have a lot of information and knowledge, will not transfer all of them to the students, but will focus more on the education of the student. They focus on sciences, humanities, and psychology in particular.
The scholarship group can be divided into two smaller groups: individual student and college student. An individual’s student is more interested in the individual characteristics of his students, identifying them one by one and treating them with each one according to his individual characteristics, while the student is more concerned with the students and their collective development, and one to one is taken into consideration. He does not. This group of teachers is working with the development of psychology and juvenile psychology to educate and improve the general development of all students. The behavior of these teachers towards the behavior of individual teacher teachers is more formal. This class of teachers does not pay much attention to the emotions and demands of the students.
Teachers lesson oriented
Teachers in general, are more concerned with the lesson than cultivating students. They try their best to transfer the lessons to the students in any way. The group does not pay attention to students and their individual differences, or they do not consider it to be so important. According to the group, students are required to complete the lesson thoroughly and return to the teacher. According to the members of this group, the scientific facts prepare students for social life and for this reason, acquisition of knowledge is primarily important. These teachers are keen on science and technology. Many high school principals and a group of elementary school teachers, and sometimes some of the teachers in the educational system of our community make up this group of teachers.
The group can also be divided into two smaller groups of scholarly and philosophical scholars. The scientific group is more interested in scientific disciplines and are trying to expand their knowledge on this day. Although they do not have philosophical and social lessons, they can attract students for the vast amount of scientific knowledge they have. The effect that teachers have on science in their students is not due to their character but to the extent of their information. Such effects are usually educational, not educational, but we indirectly see educational effects. Although the interest of this group of teachers is more in science and science than in students, their attachment to science makes students sometimes entertained with much interest in their classroom.
The philosophical group, while focusing more on lessons than students, but because they often deal with general and social issues, their class is stuck. Students are more likely to have these teachers. This group, with its prominent personality, is regarded by the students as an ideal and exemplary human being and attracts all their attention so that the students are not overlooked about their features and possibilities and can not afford to expand their personality. Such teachers usually do not pay attention to the individuality of the students and do not pay attention to the teaching method, but because of their particular idealism and penetrating character, they fascinate the students, so that students not only accept them easily but also their own pattern of life Also put.
Teacher’s personality and science features (2)
The Effect of Teacher’s Personality and Behavior in the Teaching Process
In the teaching process, the behavior and behavior of the teacher are very important. For students, the behavior and behavior of the teacher is a good measure for evaluating the contents, statements, testimonies, and guidelines. Therefore, the teacher must be so magnanimous in his behavior and deeds that his student model and pattern will be. Bringing his disciples free and teach them that humanity can be realized and that it is itself an example of humanity. (Ministry of Education; teacher and family).
The second martyr in the book of Manjeh al-Merid, entitled “Adab al-Mufid and Al-Masfid, says about the characteristics of the teacher:
– The teacher must have the purity of purpose and take steps towards divine and human goals, to understand God from inside and outside and to rely on him in all aspects of his life. Have a good life, love, and self-confidence. With the people of the world and the mercenaries, he does not establish a link to guard the respect and value of knowledge. The teacher, on the assumption that he has an excuse, should not be divided between his acts and his words. He can not sanction a practice that he himself commits, or make an action obligatory and definitive, and he himself does not adhere to it. (Shahidisani, Zainuddin bin Ali – 1362)
– The teacher should not give the right to the student to recognize the student – because one generation was born later than him or less than a few years later – to accept all his words. Teachers must pay attention to all students when teaching. Most students, especially in the guidance period and the first years of high school, need more teacher attention, depending on their age, and they want to be taken into consideration their comments and be consulted. If the teacher does not pay attention to this issue and does not interfere with his or her students’ decision-making, or he always looks at a certain number, his students will do things for the sake of his or her own affirmation and to prove himself, that the order of the class will collapse and the teaching will fail.
– The teacher should not forget justice in dealing with students. He should not differentiate between students. If the students feel that the teacher has discriminated between them, they will not pay attention to him or her. The teacher’s loving look, like his voice, should equally apply to all students because all teacher’s behavior is comprehensible to the students, even the path between his home and school. This is especially important in small towns and in rural schools.
– The teacher should be on time. A good teacher is the one who will enter the class sooner than the students, and they will leave the class later so that they can be a pattern for the students. Appearance and teacher’s talk are factors that affect his teaching. A teacher who, with dirty and unplanned clothes and in general, improperly entered a class, can not be a good model for students. He must always observe wiping and polishing, talk with a gentle and kind tone, and avoid relying on indecisive words, talk slowly, and speak in a way that all students can easily hear his voice.
Effect of the Teacher’s Scientific Personality on the Teaching Process
As much as a teacher has a desirable human behavior, but considered scientifically weak and impotent, the student will not be accepted by the students. Balanced personality, along with the teacher’s professorship, makes him valued by the students. A teacher is a scientist who is keen to know how to communicate and how to communicate. The teacher must be aware of the new communication theories of the new sciences of psychology and behavioral sciences, especially the psychology of teaching and learning. Knowledge of the social sciences, especially social psychology, will also help him to develop the special culture and characteristics of the social classes of the disciples to Recognizing some and recognizing their individual and social characteristics, to plan for educational activities.
The teaching method should be selected in accordance with the principles of education and the characteristics of the students since the teacher’s main task is not just to teach and retrain the lesson, but his most important task is to help and help each student to achieve the desired goals of education.
The mastery of the content and subject of the course is one of the most important characteristics of the teacher. Although the scope of science is even widespread in a particular discipline, and less can be achieved to all of them, it is imperative that the teacher master the content that he teaches. To achieve this, he must have a consistent and continuous study. If a teacher is weak in scientific matters and can not answer the students’ questions, he will surely fail in his work. The teacher should always add to his knowledge. He should be in constant contact with new findings in his field of work. If a teacher neglects this, he or she will have to repeat the course in teaching. A permanent study for the teacher is more than ever necessary.
The other role of the teacher is to establish a relationship between the community and the school. It may be supposed that the teacher’s task is just the transfer of knowledge and information, and he does not have a job for society, whereas the reality is just the opposite, because the students learn to live better. If formal education does not relate to their social and real life, it will not be so important and credible. Most of the time, students pass outside the school environment, so the teacher must also be a guide to students in social life. Teachers’ guides make real life meaningful to learners.
The education of any society takes on a particular shape due to the history and culture of that society. A knowledgeable teacher must, by emphasizing that particular culture and taking into account the historical conditions of society, strive to familiarize students with the supreme values of the advanced and human society. Because a complex and dynamic community requires sophisticated people, the teacher must strive to bring the students’ minds out of a state of recession and stability and to acquaint them with valuable human ideals. The knowledgeable teacher is working with the knowledge and information he has to contribute to the mobility and dynamism of his community towards progress.
In addition to having rich scientific content, the teacher should be aware of techniques and skills. He must recognize the goals of education and, with this knowledge, direct his educational activities. He should be able to analyze the educational process and, using the available facilities, choose his teaching method. He should be aware of the educational patterns that educators have achieved with their research, and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each one and are fully familiar with the methods of teaching and classroom techniques, in order to provide the desired learning environment. A teacher who is fluent in content but unfamiliar with teaching methods may not be able to provide a suitable learning position. Teachers, in addition to having rich scientific content and familiarity with teaching methods, should be familiar with planning and educational design. He must be able to clearly define his teaching objectives before he begins teaching so that he can target the target.
The characteristics of the students and the impact it is in the process of teaching
Knowledge of the cognitive processes of students of different ages is one of the most important duties of the teacher because the process of the student, his interests, the degree of motivation, emotional maturity, social background, and past experiences are factors that always affect the method of teacher work in the classroom. Students bring in a variety of traits, such as truth, lying, courage, fear, anxiety, aggression, effort, and many desirable and desirable traits. If a teacher imagines that he/she can succeed in fulfilling his educational duties without knowing the students without knowing their mental, emotional and social development, and even without parental cooperation, it is hard to make mistakes.
The teacher can not impose their work on them, regardless of the characteristics of the students, in other words, because the student’s intellectual, moral and social activities are not in accordance with the teacher’s will. Teacher teaching should be tailored to students’ needs, interests and mental abilities. Of course, this does not mean that students can do whatever they want, but it means that the activities and work of the school should be a favorite and desirable student. They should be self-employed, not the duties and duties imposed on them by the teacher. The law of interest or desire that governs the performance of adult thinking is also true in the first place about children and school students, especially since children’s interests are still unprofessional.
The mental construction, intelligence, and apprenticeship of the sciences are another issue that should be considered in the teaching method. The mental construction of children is different from the subjective development of adults; therefore, the teacher must provide educational programs and materials in accordance with the level of understanding and understanding of the students to be accessible to them, that is, the curriculum and the type and amount of the assignment must be based on the stages of mental development and various abilities Students become inaccessible because any food (curriculum) is not equally appropriate for all ages. The teacher must note that the developmental stages of developmental stages are not fixed forever and permanently in terms of age and the content of thought; therefore, it can increase the efficiency of students’ work by means of healthy methods, and even their spiritual growth Without hurting its solidity. (Piaget, Jean-1367)
The teacher should give students the opportunity to make their own knowledge. Children need more direct learning opportunities than direct education needs; therefore, it is better for teachers to reduce education and direct transmission of concepts to the extent possible, and to provide learning opportunities and arrange educational materials to create a desirable learning position…
The pupil’s social status is another factor that influences teachers’ teaching. Students in the socialization process require a healthy pattern to create a desirable job. Parents and teachers are the first effective models in the formation of the personality of the students, because, at the beginning of the process of social growth, adults are always the model of any social and moral traits, but this is not a very dangerous situation; for example, the faces that the teacher has in mind for the student. The student will accept his statements and this acceptance will leave him thinking. This practice takes the faith based on the authority of others into a substitute for the student’s individual beliefs and does not allow him to take the path of thought and dialogue that is the cause of reason. In the educational process, student interaction is as important as an adult’s practice. This cooperation, intellectually, can facilitate the real exchange of thought better than any other, and develop students with critical minds and logical thinking.
The same is true in the moral context; this means that the child considers bad and good only what it is in accordance with the rules established by the adults. This ethics, that is, ethical ethics or obedience to others, will lead the students to a variety of cadavers. Such ethics cannot lead the child to the independence of individual conscience, that is, a good morality-versus home-based ethics. As a result, the child is defeated to understand the fundamental values of society. Understanding these issues can help the teacher in the educational process and adopt an appropriate teaching method.
Impact of the program and the construction of the educational system in the teaching process
Making the educational system of each society, including attitudes, beliefs, programs, and regulations can affect the teacher’s teaching method. Dry and flexible rules, non-specialized decisions behind the closed doors, teacher selection, attention or disregard of the educational system to the needs of students and society, the initiation of the system to content and programs rather than immersive development, lack of monitoring and sound control, and principled evaluations and Inalienable, everyone and everyone can influence the school’s activities, including teaching the teacher. In the study of the structure of the educational system, in terms of the program and how to implement, two distinct systems can be distinguished.
Program based on the originality of school
The curriculum-based program has the following features:
1 The purpose of education is to transfer the content of the curriculum from one generation to the next.
2 A fixed schedule is being implemented for all countries.
3 The content of the attached program is set to text.
4 Each lesson is taught independently and without communication with other materials.
5 It is imperative for all teachers to observe discipline in the teaching of textbooks.
6 The result of educational activity, in terms of teacher and student, is more to the memory and passing the exam and get the score.
7 The implementation of more educational programs is aimed at maintaining and providing a consistent educational system.
In such a system, the teacher does not have much freedom and initiative. Apart from individual differences, he provides all students with the same content in a constant way and, by resorting to the right and wrong methods, tries to increase the number of acceptance of class students. The lessons are boring for students, and they are not content with school and classroom environments.
Program based on the development of all-round student
The student-centered program has the following characteristics:
1 The goal of education is to meet the immediate and future needs of the student and society.
2 The program is tailored to the needs of the region and the type of school and students’ ability.
3 The content of the program depends on the individual and group activities of the students, and the teacher always plays the role of the guide.
4 Learning is a continuous course of study, with discovery and problem-solving.
5 Teachers have the freedom to act and exercise more authority in the implementation of the program and the choice of material.
6 The result of educational activities is evaluated to satisfy the need for learning and to contribute to the balanced development of students’ personality.
7 Setting up and developing educational programs is a continuous and ongoing effort.
In such a system, the interests, abilities, and needs of students are centered on educational activities, and the teacher shows more initiative and creativity in teaching. Learning does not end in secrecy, but the development of the thinking and the immensity of the student’s attention is taken into consideration. The school has a close relationship with the students’ real life, and the students enjoy the feeling of being at school and its activities.
In such a system, the program refers to the set of educational efforts – according to the plan that the student contributed to its arrangement – and the situations created for the students to collaborate with each other; therefore, it is different from the normal programs of the first type. In ordinary programs, the theoretical lesson is considered, and learning of that kind of imposition is the result of which is a good score, while in a program based on a thorough growth, students form work groups, and practically the method of division of responsibility and the way of life co-operation They learn.
The Effect of Space and Educational Equipment in the Teaching Process
A good teacher in limited circumstances can also be effective. But there is no doubt that the appropriate space and teaching equipment is very effective in teaching teacher quality. The plurality of students, lack of desk and bench, poor quality gypsum boards, lack of lighting, cool and dark classes with windows overlooking the street, unsafe classroom and lack of playgrounds, libraries, prayer rooms, labs and hundreds of other facilities can influence the teacher’s teaching method. Put up
Imagine two schools: the first one has an appropriate training space, spacious classes, comfortable couches, regular instructional equipment, meeting rooms, libraries, prayer rooms, sports grounds, and open-air sports facilities, and second, there are dark classes that are principally for Educational activities are not made, old and inadequate couches, lack of educational equipment, lack of sports ground, library and chapel. Will the educational activities, especially teaching and learning, take place in the same environment in the same way? Do teachers and students in the two environments have the same level of educational and educational effort? In a class where there is not enough room for students to sit, the teacher can never be comfortable with teaching. Even the school’s open space and its outlook can also affect the mentality of the student and teacher and increase the quality of teaching and learning. Students need to be vigilant, and usually, there is no such possibility in their personal lives, and the school should provide them with the opportunity. If the school does not have a chapel or a library, how can students be expected to attend a prayer or learn from the book? Or if the schools lack the teaching equipment, how can the teacher expect good quality teaching and expect students to have a good learning experience. School education should be provided in an appropriate environment, with appropriate methods and facilities, based on the students’ needs, interests and fields of study, so that the teacher can teach and motivate the learner to learn, motivate and motivate their activities and feel pleasure and satisfaction. To make If the school does not have a chapel or a library, how can students be expected to attend a prayer or learn from the book? Or if the schools lack the teaching equipment, how can the teacher expect good quality teaching and expect students to have a good learning experience. School education should be provided in an appropriate environment, with appropriate methods and facilities, based on the students’ needs, interests and fields of study, so that the teacher can teach and motivate the learner to learn, motivate and motivate their activities and feel pleasure and satisfaction. To make If the school does not have a chapel or a library, how can students be expected to attend a prayer or learn from the book? Or if the schools lack the teaching equipment, how can the teacher expect good quality teaching and expect students to have a good learning experience. School education should be provided in an appropriate environment, with appropriate methods and facilities, based on the students’ needs, interests and fields of study, so that the teacher can teach and motivate the learner to learn, motivate and motivate their activities and feel pleasure and satisfaction. To make
The plot of a theory of teaching is coordinated
Different dimensions of the coordinated teaching theory can be described through a two-dimensional table, one dimension of which represents the type of scientific study and is divided into three categories of descriptive, prescriptive and normative research, and the second dimension It relates to the goals of teaching and teaching methods and can be divided into two questions.
From teaching, as well as learning, there are many definitions. Some teach the teacher’s explicit pronouncement of what to learn, and others consider teaching as a cross-referencing process that takes place between the teacher and the student and the content in the classroom. A large number of educators and educators provide teaching and learning opportunities that make learning easy for students. From the examination of the totality of the definitions presented in this field, it can be concluded that teaching is an activity, but not any kind of activity, but an activity that is conscious and based on a particular purpose, an activity that is based on the students’ cognitive status and causes them to change. , Although still there are those who, according to traditional patterns and methods, refer to teaching only in the classroom’s efforts and activities. The empirical-analytical studies are descriptive studies.
Teaching methods and strategies
Educational psychology and experimental-analytical studies in the field of teaching are examples of descriptive research types. Studies aimed at establishing and realizing ultimate goals and ethical standards are called standard research. The examination of standard subjects is outside the scope and scope of empirical-analytical research, but it is necessary to lead higher education to higher values, such as studies of the philosophy of education that addresses issues of standards and values. Research, which communicates between standard studies and descriptive studies to address important and practical issues, is called prescriptive research, such as applied science, technology, and science of design, which are among the categories of prescriptive studies. There is a general agreement about the importance and role of prescriptive studies in the education process between most educational science students.
A table of a coordinated teaching theory (teaching methodologies list)
|Perforated type and type of studies||Descriptive||Prescription||A criterion|
Goals-The content of the course in the class
|Theory of teaching goals|
Interactive teacher and inclusive interaction
|Theory of teaching methods|
|Teaching Psychology Educational Research||Educational technology or design knowledge||Philosophy of Education|
Part A is obtained through empirical research on the behavioral objectives of the teaching process. Based on the goals set, the educational content is specified and regulated, and therefore, what should be the criterion for determining the purpose and educational content is the principles and rules that have been achieved through descriptive research.
Teaching methods and strategies
Part B is part of the curriculum. What theory is taught to the question? Provided that the final objectives are predetermined. Decisions on final results are made through standardized research in Part C. The parts are very important. Descriptive studies provide instructors with useful information on the interaction between teacher and student, not only through observational methods but also through empirical research. A lot of research has been done on teaching methods. Finally, the episode includes a standard theory that relates to the professional-moral criteria of educators and teachers.
A large number of teaching theories belong to prescriptive studies. Such theories can be useful for teacher training. For this reason, in the next section, we will discuss one of the prescriptive teaching theories. This theory is based on an information process and is first and foremost limited to the type of teaching that addresses cognitive goals.
The content of the lesson
The content of the lesson is the lesson to be taught. In fact, the content of the lesson is determined by the difference from the ultimate goal of teaching and the present state (initial position) of the student. The content of the course includes the assignments the student is doing. The content of the course is substantially dependent on the student, and the curriculum based on the content of the lesson should also be affiliated with the student. In addition, the content of the lesson includes specific and specific needs of students that the teacher must consider when designing a curriculum and choosing a teaching method.
Actions of the teaching (the function of teaching)
In practice, according to the learner’s characteristics, there are certain actions; this means that teaching affects the currents occurring in learners. These actions can be discovered and evaluated through research and investigation.
One of the most important points in learning is the existence of a stimulus for learning. If a student does not have the motivation to learn, he will rarely learn. Sometimes the student’s suggestion that his knowledge base, his mental pattern, or his measures to solve incomplete and inadequate problems may encourage his learning motivation.
One of the teaching goals is to get students to learn. Information may be in various forms, such as knowledge and awareness of various subjects, actions and processes, practical measures, and eventually problem-solving. Information may be transmitted through listening, reading, or exploring (catching). The student must be prepared for information. The attention and attention of the student must be focused on new information and his thinking in this regard. The information must be stored for a long time in his memory and the ordering of the flow of information and communication between the previous information and the new information in a new format.
To flow down the information (information processing)
In order to ensure that all parts of the world understand the necessary information, the information must be transmitted in three ways:
First, all the information obtained must be clear and obvious, that is, the mental prerequisites (hypotheses), the probable or necessary consequences and implications, the relationships and the interconnection between them must be clear and distinct;
Secondly, the student should be able to break down the new information into smaller parts; combine these parts with each other as well as reconstruct the original information;
Third, the student must find and understand, by comparing the smaller parts, with the construction and compilation of new information; this means that they divide and distinguish between them by way of the discovery and understanding of some aspects, rather than information, Get and discover a basic construction.
Storing and modifying
Some stored information may be subject to evaluation for reuse. The new production of information is not usually achieved through practice and repetition, but from combining and combining previously stored information with new information. The student tries to reconstruct his mind by comparing the new information with the previous information, that is, through the discovery of similarities and differences and the integration and integration of new and old information, a new structure is created or the previous construction is modified and expanded.
Transferring data (transfer of information)
Students must be able to transfer what they have learned to new things. Transmission occurs in both positive and negative terms, but here the transfer is positive. In a positive transition, two kinds of transitions can be identified: one is the application of the law of the principle or principle in the process of new activity, and the other is related to the comparison of information and expression in particular cases.
Control and directions
To control the above activities, it is necessary to control and, if necessary, lead and conduct the students. Controlling can be considered as an important teaching activity. In teaching, you should guide and guide the students in a desirable way.
Teaching methods and strategies
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