Sterilization or sterilization is an activity that removes microorganisms from the environment. Sterilized, the absence of any detectable and biocompatible microbes in the liquid medium or in the gas phase. Sterilization is a process that destroys all living microorganisms, spores, and viruses in a high-temperature pressure vessel. In the food and dairy industry, sterilization is usually done to protect the product.
On a laboratory scale, large steam containers are usually used in kPa105 (psig 15) for a period of 20 to 30 minutes. It’s an autoclave system  is known as sterilization is discontinuous. When the air is exhausted, replace the water vapor and heat up to oC121 goes up. Wet steam is usually used for effective autoclaving. High temperatures and high temperatures can kill all organisms, spores, and viruses. When the culture medium is prepared, it should be heated at high pressure to remove bacterial and fungal contaminants. Therefore, medium o C121 and autoclave is kPa105. In fact, the autoclave acts like a quick start, which is a convenient and economical vehicle for autoclaving.
Excessive warming of the culture medium may have adverse effects and cause pH instability. Acid pH is very sensitive to overheating.
The microbial cell stabilization method
Overheating in a sugar-enriched medium causes the carbohydrates to burn and the browning of its sugars. This culture medium may have a reversible effect and reduce bacteriological function . Such gels or nutrient agar medium  The pH is acidic hydrolysis. This is due to acidic conditions of stimulating activity  or large amounts of protons separated from the solid medium and the formation of added sugars. This may cause substrate inhibition on the growth of organisms in a steep solid culture.
In batch sterilization, steam is used to remove live organisms. Heat loss, heating and cooling are the most important stages and the process is time-consuming. The air must be evacuated and replaced with steam. At first, the steam is pressed into the container at once. With this method, we must ensure that the air is exited. Steam sterilization is carried out in a coating container  , which, by evaporating, regulates the pressure and keeps the temperature constant at a fixed level. The discolored sterilization wastes energy and overheats the medium. There is no energy conservation, so such a process is usable at high scales. Bleeding sterilization is usually performed at the laboratory level.
Bleeding sterilization The culture medium is carried out in an autoclave. Basically, this system is great steam. The steam enters the cover  inside the container. When the pressure is formed inside the coating, the air outlet valve is closed and the inlet valve allows the vapor to enter the autoclave. The pressure in the autoclave increases to 10 kPa. At this point, the sterilization time begins to count down. Usually, the time is 15 to 30 minutes (depending on the culture medium and its volume). For example, one liter of culture medium sterilized in o C121 requires 20 minutes of time. High volumes may require higher maintenance times . There are recommendations in this area: 20, 10, and 3 minutes respectively for temperatures 121, 126, and oC134, to be used for maintenance. The high pressures in a tank, depending on the temperature, allow an o 121 ° C.
One of the methods for continuous sterilization of the culture medium for fermentation is the direct use of steam, by injection into the medium. In the storage medium, in a cycle  remains to be sterilized medium. The problem of direct steam injection is the dilution of the culture medium because it is cold at first. However, economically, the use of an alternative heat exchanger is cost-effective instead of direct steam injection. Preheaters  are used to utilize all heat generated. Instead of having cold water flow to cool the culture medium, the low temperature of the sterilized culture medium can be increased by sterilizing the culture medium and thereby lower the temperature of the sterilized culture medium. Continuous sterilization has a ring  for sufficient length to eliminate microorganisms.
Finally, the culture medium is collected in a cylindrical container of a sudden vacuum .
Preheaters  are of great importance for high-level factories in continuous sterilization. For a low-volume bioreactor, it is much easier to use direct steam injection for operation. A heat exchanger with water cooling for medium to return to ambient temperature  the need is. Therefore, cooling water is usually used to cover containers. There are advantages and disadvantages for continuous and discontinuous sterilization. The storage of energy is dependent on the preheater or indirect sterilization. In a high-scale system, the economy and the role  decides which process is more practical. For each case, special design is required to determine thermal efficiency and fixed costs.
 Nutrient agar
 Vacuum flash drum
 Heat economizers
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