Recombinant DNA technology Definition
Recombinant DNA technology is a collection of DNA-related techniques that, through the introduction of biology knowledge in the early 1970s, have revolutionized biotechnology research as well as for biotechnology. The Gene Cloning or Gene Cloning technique forms the core of recombinant DNA technology by which one can copy and reproduce an alien gene in a living cell and then express it with the protein associated with that gene, the so-called recombinant protein (Recombinant Protein), is produced in large quantities.
DNA cloning involves separating the desired fragment from DNA and replicating multiple copies of it in an organism (usually a bacterium) that can grow over a long period of time in the lab. This is in order to produce relatively high amounts of the desired DNA fragment, which allows for the analysis of its structure and function.
By using this technique, a particular sequence of DNA, called recombinant DNA, is produced. In the early 1970s, certain microbes identified enzymes known as restrictive enzymes that could cut DNA into a particular region. These cut-off sections are useful in subsequent processes for the production of recombinant DNA molecules. This property of enzymes limiting in DNA technology and its application in medical genetics.
The relationship between DNA and protein
From the DNA and the information contained therein, a polypeptide (protein) is made. Since the DNA position in the nucleus and the site of proteinuria is located in the cytoplasm and is separated from each other by the nucleus membrane, the molecule must establish the relationship between the two, based on the reasons for this molecule, RNA.
The 1-molecule of RNA is small and easily passes through the membrane.
2. The amount of RNA in cells with high protein synthesis activity is high.
3. RNA exists both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus.
4. The amount of RNA in cells with low proteinuria is low.
This mediator molecule that carries information from DNA to the ribosome is called the RNA peak.
The process of making RNA is called transcriptional DNA, which is the first step in making the protein. This action is done by the RNA polymerase enzyme.
Proteins result from the binding of amino acids to each other through peptide bonding. The formation of the peptide bond and the arrangement of amino acids that are specific to each protein is simply not possible. For this reason, there should be a special mechanism in the cell that can maintain the properties of the proteins. Protein biosynthesis is, in fact, the translation of the nucleic acid sequence of the DNA in the protein molecule. The transfer of information from DNA to the protein molecule is possible by RNAs, especially mRNAs. Thus, for each protein, there is a specific mRNA of that protein. In other words, every protein on the DNA has a specific gene whose gene information is transcribed in the mRNA and translated into the molecule.
Protein Biosynthesis or Translation (Translation mRNA
The process by which information in the mRNA is used to make the protein.
The factors necessary for translation
Factors for translation: 1. Pattern (mRNA) 2- Construction materials 3. Enzymes 4. Energy 5. Protein Factors
It is said that proteins are involved in the continuation and termination of protein synthesis at each of the various stages. These factors are referred to as the start factors (EF) and termination (RF), depending on the stage they enter. Variety of different protein factors in eukaryotes is much more than prokaryotes. In this way, it is possible to fine-tune protein synthesis in eukaryotes. In general, the stages of protein synthesis in eukaryotes and prokaryotes are very similar to each other and include the following steps: 1. Starting Stage 2- Continuation Stage 3- End Stage
1- The formation of the primer complex is the first event for protein synthesis.
2- Two incremental factors are required for this step.
3. The extension extends to the end. RF termination factors).
Application of recombinant technology
1- Treating Genetic Diseases (Gene Therapy)
2- Production of useful biological products (insulin)
3- Production of the vaccine
4. Improvement of crops, dealing with recombinant microbial species …
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