Introduction to Cellulose Industries
The wood industry is one of the industries that have a wide range of industry and industries in the country, with its actual and potential. It has been started from natural resources and forestry, and has grown from large factories such as particleboard, particleboard, plywood and veneer, Furniture and then paper, this wide range, along with the growing need for their products, highlights the importance of this industry.
Wood is one of the products of nature that has played a role in human life for a long time and its significance has increased over time. Regardless of the age of the wood and its footprint in the development of various civilizations, its role in the industry and trade is now undeniable. Wood in some countries, such as Sweden, is one of the main sources of income in the country; therefore, it plays an important role in the development of these countries. Thus, the percentage of road, rail and sea transportation capacity is dedicated to the transportation of wood products. Ports and their distance to the centers of consumption and the factories of timber conversion play a key role in transporting it. The stock exchanges are also working on wood and paper and stock related to its factories. More than four thousand five hundred different products from wood derivatives are being developed and sold to the world markets. When talking about wood, the discussion about its source is forests. The need for care and protection is not to be plundered. Industrialization and the use of wood as a raw material have put these resources in the path of analysis and elimination and put the environment at high risk for pollution of air, water, and soil.
Nowadays, humans have realized that the importance of wood is in such a way that it is inevitable to support the forests, so that in the future there will be no available material for the factories, and the time when wood as a material that only It has been spent on fuel consumption or the construction of a door and window, and the era of the production of precious and valuable products has come from wood, and maybe in the near future the economic value of this material will coexist with oil. However, the needs of each community are based on the degree to which the community has achieved it.
People in advanced countries have a different mindset about woodworking industries. Furniture, decoration, industrial products and, most importantly, paper, is expected to have a bearing on the advanced knowledge of woodworking. Fortunately, in the urban areas of Iran, because of the presence of fossil fuels and electricity, wood is not considered as an energy supplier, yes, as an industrial product.
The history of wood consumption
Evidence shows that the early humans used the wood from the wood when it was in the caves due to its natural and proportional shape for hunting animals, etc. Objects in the Natural History Museum in London show that humans hunted about ten thousand years ago with a wooden spear and passed through the trunk of the trees through rivers and rivers. About five thousand years ago in northern Europe, the use of wooden boats and sleds was common. In archaeological excavations alongside the lake of Switzerland and some other places that were formerly in the water, the wooden foundations of floating homes dating back to the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron Age dates back to the age of the use of wood in buildings and appliances.
The use of wood in Iran has not been documented, but according to studies conducted by researchers and explorers, the indigenous peoples of Iran used to consume wood for housing prior to the Aryan migration from about 4200 BC. Of course, the use of wood in the procurement of agricultural machinery has also flourished. In the inscriptions written from Persepolis, the use of cedar wood in the decoration and decoration of palaces has been specified. The importance of wood in ancient Iran was based on the principle that respect for forest trees was considered the main orders of the Zoroastrian kish. The use of wood for boatmaking and shipbuilding was also very interesting during the Achaemenid era. After the spread of Islam, industries and arts in Iran have been influenced by religious guidelines. Accordingly, many wooden artworks can be found in mosques and sacred sites such as Door, pulp, carvings, and grids.
The furniture industry is considered to be the oldest part of the world’s wood industry since humans used it for a long time on a bench. In Iran, this industry is not old enough since in the past, in most parts of Iran it has been customary to sit on beautiful and exquisite carpets. Even until the end of the Qajar period, only a few of the prominent personalities of the specially designed French-style lining fabric often came from abroad, but after that period, with the changing lifestyle of the people, the furniture industry has progressed and now Some Iranian professors are able to create masterpieces in this field
Paper is the most important product of wood
Paper consumption is one of the criteria for cultural development as well as indicators of health development in each country. The size of the publication of books and the number of publications in each community indicates the importance that the people attach to knowledge.
This product of thought, knowledge, and industry, whose rate of consumption in our time has become one of the criteria for recognizing the progress of civilization, as well as other strategic products, also reveals the boundaries of dependence and independence of nations. To make The product was produced and supplied by Egyptians for the first time in the year 3000 BC, under the title Papyrus, which recorded the text of their treaties and transactions thereon. The word “paper”, which is an English word, is derived from papyrus. Papyrus paper for the first centuries of spreading Islam has been used in the court of the Caliphate of Baghdad.
The word paper is derived from its Chinese name “Cicadas.” The first paper that conforms to today’s definitions of paperwork and paperwork was made by a Chinese person named Tayyoung in 105 AD from Bamboo. Paper production is one of the four great inventions in China. The paper-making industry grew with the use of cellulosic fibers in the city of Samarkand, to the extent that its products were exported to most Islamic cities. In the city of cotton and linen, they made the most elegant and white papers and exported to other cities. The process of exporting paper from Samarkand to Baghdad continued as Baghdad’s 794 gained the first milling mill. Then the paper mills were set up one after the other in other Islamic cities, and this product opened its way to Tunisia, Morocco, and then to the Muslim Spain, and the first paper mill in Europe was built in the city of Moore.
If the German Gothenburg, with the invention of the print car, had a turning point in communication, the Chinese and Muslims were undoubtedly impressed by the glory of his work.
The position of the paper industry in Iran from the past to today
The paper industry in Iran has also had a significant place. There is no doubt that the era of widespread use of paper and, consequently, the development of the paper industry, begins with the invention of the printing press, and the invention of the gears makes it possible to make dough Enables a lot of paper. The construction of the first printing house and the publication of the first Persian newspaper by Mirza Saleh Shirazi, has led to a new phase in the growth of paper consumption in Iran. With the establishment of schools and a system of administrative bureaucracy, the paper is placed among imported goods. This is true of the majority of Islamic countries, although Muslims themselves have been transporting the paper industry to Europe. In recent decades, the paper has been traded and produced not only as a cultural commodity but also as health, industrial, and industrial commodity. The paper’s mission can be summarized as three main categories of information transfer, packaging and health applications.
The paper and cardboard group products were presented as follows:
- Types of print and paper such as books, magazines, newspapers, catalogs, brochures,
- Types of packaging paper, including printed and unpacked packaging, including all kinds of envelopes, bags, paper bags and bags
- Plain paper, cardboard boxes and cardboard boxes
- Healthy paper, which is currently occupying a critical place in the world for cleaning and hygiene purposes.
- Special paper such as electronic paper, promotional cards, bank cards and …
In the complex economic world of the industrialized world, this commodity (paper) goes hand in hand with superpowers, like other strategic goods, as levers of power and pressure. Therefore, we need to plan and use it, because it’s not worth the industry, culture, and health of the future in the decision-making group of global markets.
Types of pulping methods
Wood is a renewable material that combines hemicellulose and lignin-cellulose and a small fraction of terpene-resin (gum) and fatty acids. The wood contains about 45% cellulose -30% hemicellulose-23% lignin. Lignin is a sticky substance that glued together cellulose fibers. In the dough process, cellulose and hemicellulose are separated from lignin and extractives. This is the most important step since the rest of the fibers are used to make the product we know paper.
A – Chemical pulping
The purpose of this method is to remove lignin by chemical means. One of the chemical methods of papermaking is Kraft, a method for making the brown paper of special packing color. In chemical purification, smooth and smooth cellulose fibers are produced. In the preparation of kraft paper pulp, chips are baked with sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide to provide brown dough. This is an advanced step for the separation of lignin and resin from softwood, which, after treatment, has very high ductility. The dark color of the resulting dough needs to be remarkably washed and white so it can be used.
B. Mechanical smearing :
In this type of papermaking method, mechanical parts are separated from the wood and used as sheets of paper. In this method, the percentage of usable dough is high, but the paper quality is lower. 95% of the wood is converted to the dough, while in the pulp, this amount reaches 45 to 50%. But the quality of the paper is lower because lignin and resin of the tree are available in the dough and the milling or powdering steps break down and crush the cellulose fiber and reduce the durability and hardness of the dough. As a result, the dough has a poor fiber and laminate capacity, which makes it look dark when it’s in the sun.
One of the most important washing and bleaching steps is used to clean and clean the paste. Chlorine dioxide and chlorine dioxide are used for the washing of dough, and most of the mechanical washing operations are carried out using high-oxide. Chlorine gas eliminates a lot of lignin residues to remove chlorine dioxide, lignin, which can not be removed white.
The paper machine engages in four stages that begin with the preparation of raw materials. Wood fibers are mixed with water and minerals. A mixture of about 99% of that water. In a modern machine, water is drained from the bottom and up. Once the water is drained, a portion of the paper is formed.
In the next step, the press or dewatering section is squeezed and pulled out of paper by rollers and a large mat that is made from nylon and polyester strings, and most of the paper water is taken. After this section, 40% to 50% of the paper is still from the water. In the third part, in the dryer section, more water is taken from the paper. After the dryer section, 2 to 6 percent of the paper is made up of water. In a high-quality machine, a woman’s shaving machine covers the paper. This machine draws a coating of starch and minerals on paper to make the paper tighter, smoother and softer. Once covered, the paper is again dried in the drying section and finally wrapped around large rolls.
Different forms of wood used in the paper industry
The types of wood used for the use are pollen (wood trunk), wood from branches, wood and tree components other than main stems and branches, waste wood industry and recycled wood products, Wood chips, coal and other combustible materials made of wood, sawdust and so on.
In general, timber is a commodity derived from the nature and origin of the tree, and since the raw material is needed to make paper, cellulose and other wood or other plant material (such as straw and straw). They are from cellulose sources, so the elements that contain this material are needed to make the paper. Generally, any cellulosic substance that has the following requirements is applicable to the paper industry:
1. The suitability of fibers for paper making
2. Significance of the volume ratio of fiber to the total volume
3. Frequency of these fibers on a commercial scale
4. Make easy and cheap fiber obtained
5. Can be maintained as a raw material for a period of operation
Production and exploitation of wood
In the first stage of exploitation, human work is with nature, but in the next stages of production, the problem of industry and technology comes. Currently, 1-3 is from the world’s forested land, with an area of over 4,300 million hectares. These forests are one of the most important natural resources of the planet, divided into two groups of tropical Mediterranean (Mediterranean) forests. Forests of the Department of Forests of the temperate world.
In a glimpse of the natural resources of the wood producer in Iran, it is observed that the territorial interactions during different geological periods are very rough terrain (to a state that is now 25 to 40 degrees wide For example, the Alborz with its mountain range in the north of the country, and across the west, has dragged a huge chain and a wall like Zagros. Zagros area is covered with oak and elm forests. The mountains of eastern Iran (from Khorasan to Baluchestan) have been integrated seamlessly. The natural resources of the wood producer in Iran, the forests in the country make up 7.4 percent of the total area of the country. At present, the northern forests of the country (not the northernmost of the northern forests), but also those under projects and projects exploited economically for proper operation. Of the 1.3 million hectares of the northern forests, only 400,000 hectares have been exploited. The rest of the northern industrial and commercial forests can also be used to create utility networks by creating utilization plans. According to the estimates of the forests and rangelands of the country, Mazandaran province has 1316 thousand hectares of forest, of which 698 thousand hectares are productive.
Of course, the provinces of Fars and Hormozgan each have more than one million hectares of forest, most of which are the forests of the two provinces of the shrubs of Gaz, Bennet, Almond and. . . Is formed. Guilan province, with 410,000 hectares of commercial forest, is the second largest forest producer in the Mazandaran province. The forests of other provinces are among the second and third-grade forests, or that their trees are poorly forests and ruined the forest. Of course, parts of dilapidated forests have been restored with planting trees. What is certain, the statistics of our country’s commercial and commercial forests are not more than 1.3 million hectares.
In the current situation, with the exception of 1.5 million cubic meters of wood, which on average averaged over the year for the implementation of projects in part of the northern forests, about 0.5 million cubic meters Wood from the western forests of the country and two million cubic meters are produced from other sources, except for exploitation plans (including tropical forests, spruce forests and gardens).
Some of the most famous wooden species in Iran’s forests, especially in the Hyrcanian region of northern Iran, are described in the following table.
|Names of wooden species|
|۱||Zarbin||Cupressus Sempervirens||۱۶||Walnut||Juglans regia|
|۲||Pine||Pinus sp||۱۷||Berries||White mulberry|
|۳||Yew||Taxus bacata||۱۸||Evangelical||Parroti persica|
|۴||Maple||Acar insigne||۱۹||Plane tree||Platanus orientalis|
|۵||Maple||Acer cheering||۲۰||Tabriz||the black|
|۶||Silk flower (goblins night)||Albizzia julibirissin||۲۱||I guess||Pterocaria fraxinifolia|
|۷||Barnyards||Alnus subcordata||۲۲||Oak||Quercus castaneafolia|
|۸||Gooseberry alder||Alnus glutinosa||۲۳||Acacia||Robina pseudoacasia|
|۹||Shamshad||Buxus hyrcana||۲۴||Willow||Salix alba|
|۱۰||Hornbeam||Carpinus betulus||۲۵||Linden||Tilia begunifolia|
|۱۱||Hotel||Corylus avellana||۲۶||Malch||Ulmus glabra|
|۱۲||Chilli||Diospyros lotus||۲۷||Oh oh||Ulmus carpinifolia|
|۱۳||Eucalyptus||Eucalyptus camaldulensis||۲۸||Free||Zelkova carpinifolia|
|۱۴||Beech||Fagus Orientalis||۲۹||Van (ash tree)||Fraxinus excelsior|
Factors that affect the production and use of wood:
Except for the natural wood manufacturer, there are also side factors that are very important in the proper operation and timely utilization of timber production. These factors, besides the use of wood forests, also play a valuable role in the lateral industries that are effective in the development of the wood industry. The following factors are Investment in Iran since 1340, with the construction of a small factory in Shambhala port (near Langrood, Guilan province), which produced chipboard.
Other important side factors in wood production plants are human resources. Although the workforce and the semi-expert workforce are working, however, since most of these factories are equipped with technical equipment, the expert staff for these factories is to increase both the production efficiency and the maintenance of machinery And their useful life is critical. The process of producing different kinds of wood products is very important both in the utilization of forests and in the production of products.
Current status of supplies of raw material for the paper industry of the country
In recent years, on the one hand, due to the increasing population growth and, consequently, the increase in demand, and on the other hand, the sharp decline in the forest resources of the country’s paper and paper industry, which depend on forest trees to supply its raw materials – due to the deterioration of the forests And wood resources – face serious problems in supplying cellulosic material.
At present, the most important lignocellulosic materials used in the cellulose industries of the country are the industrial and commercial forests of the north, woody agriculture and the forests of planting, recycling of paper and agricultural wastes, including the largest share of forest resources and imported long-fiber pulp And sugar cane (bagasse) and then other resources fall into the next ranks.
Production and consumption of paper in Iran
The manufacturers of paper types in the country are:
- Typography and newspapers with a nominal capacity of 208 thousand tons per year by Pars Paper Companies, Mazandaran Wood and Paper, Western Paper and Carbonless
- Industrial paper and packaging with a capacity of 530 thousand tons per year by Chowka, Kahrizak and Kaveh factories, Iran papyrus, wood and paper from Mazandaran, Parth and Fars Paper, Tehran Eshtehard and other cardboard manufacturers.
- Healthy paper with a nominal capacity of 35 thousand tons annually by Latif, Harir Khuzestan and emerging factories
Unfortunately, official statistics on the annual consumption of paper in Iran are unclear, unofficial statistics estimate the consumption of paper and paper products by one and a half million tons, accounting for only 30% of domestic production; according to the country’s customs statistics, import value Paper types in the seven months of the first year of the year 87 increased by 16.5% compared to the same period of the previous year, while during the same period, more than 32% of its export value decreased, as well as in the first seven months of the year 87, 560 million and 989 A thousand and 541 kilograms of paper worth 631 million and 657 thousand dollars and 12 dollars for all kinds of consumption was imported into the country. In the first seven months of the year, 86, 566, 859, 624 kilograms worth $ 541 million, 979 thousand and $ 673, which, although weighed down by the weight of six million kilos, but showed a value of 16.5 percent. According to the World Food and Agriculture Organization in 2002, per capita consumption of paper and paperboard in the United States, Canada, Japan, Germany, and South Korea was 307.54%, 214.48%, 24.46%, 21.47% 172 kg and in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Pakistan were 35.39, 19.97, 13.24, and 88.8 kg, respectively. Per capita consumption of paper and paperboard in Iran is 15 to 16 kilograms. Due to the increasing population of the country and increased consumption of paper products, it is expected that the demand for various kinds of paper products will increase over the coming years.
The state of the raw material in the pulp and paper mills of the country
|The nominal capacity of wood||Wood consumption in 86 years||Percentage of activity|
The situation of furniture production and wooden artifacts in Iran
According to the Statistics Center of Iran, there are about 226 industrial production units of furniture with about 10,000 people employed in the country. Also, according to reports by the Department Union, there are 46,700 official wood industry enterprises operating 117,000 people in these workshops. The high potential of this number of units of production in attracting labor, increasing production and, ultimately, expanding exports can be a great stimulus to affiliated and related industries such as woodworking, chipboard, adhesive, fiberboard production, laminated boarding, bonding Glass, cloth and coloring. Simply put, the development of the production and export of furniture and wooden products can act as a development engine for a large part of the country’s industries. It is worth recalling that the section of wooden artifacts is the last step in the wood industry and after this stage, the products reach the final consumer, which is why it has a high added value and can be very important in the export sector. It should be noted that according to the studies and papers presented at the second international conference of forests and industry, the value added of wood products is estimated at 30%, and if the furniture industry sector is added, the value added of this product range will reach about 70% Which is a significant figure, and if the export trend improves, it will have a significant impact on GDP growth and foreign exchange earnings.
If we divide the production of wood products into two parts of the capital and user processes, it can be argued that, given the state of the more advanced countries in the production of products requiring higher technology and capital, these countries have a more comparative advantage, and in In contrast, as we move towards more user-friendly products requiring personalized human resources, the comparative advantage of other countries, including Iran, is enhanced by the more intrusive products with higher added value.
Some wood products that are used in the production of furniture and wooden products, such as fiberboards, particle board, MDF boards, wooden laminates, and plywood, are produced by the domestic industry, with the problems in recent years. There have been a lot of problems with the supply of wooden materials because, on the one hand, the possibility of importing raw materials was not possible due to the views of the Plant Protection Organization. On the other hand, the amount of wood harvesting from forests has decreased for reasons of protection. Despite these bottlenecks, in recent years, these industries are mainly Production has grown significantly and has been part of the need Furniture industry and wood products. The following table shows the production of particle board, hardboard, and MDF in recent years:
|Row||the product||Production per thousand cubic meters|
|The year 1379||The year 1380||The year 1381||The year 1382||The year 1383||۸ماهه سال۱۳۸۴|
* MDF production has started in the country since 2004.
Lack of forest and wood resources
The lack of woody and woody resources in our country is a bitter and irrefutable reality, which has led to a decline in production capacity and, in many cases, the closure of wood industry factories in recent years. According to studies, the environmental value of forests is up to 400 Equal to their value in wood production. According to the Forestry Facility, the utilization of the northern forests over the past ten years has risen from 2 million to 200 thousand meters to less than a million cubic meters, which means a fifty percent reduction in the supply of wood to the consumer market. Looking at the state of the northern forests of the country, which only comprise 7.5% of the country’s land area. And with this same situation, the main source of domestic supplies is the supply of wood and paper and wood products – the sensitivity and vulnerability of it clearly manifested and the need for a suitable replacement and reliance on other materials and materials for the wood industry.
The necessity of creating a wood and paper industry
Although wood is generally familiar to all people, ignorance of scientific grounds and failure to act on the basis of the technical rules and regulations related to this material will cause excessive waste of wood and its diminution. This issue is more important in our country, which faces the shortage of wood resources, and we need to prevent the waste of this precious material by preventing more and more specialists in the field of the wood industry and wood processing in each of the educational levels. Wood technology college students are familiar with the various wood properties and factors that affect the changes in these properties by familiarizing themselves with conservation, conversion, different wood applications and management of production units. In this way, graduates of this period apply wood more accurately and accurately in production units and supervise it when they cut the tree till the time of manufacture of consumables, and they can serve in the process of implementation of the process of production of wood products.
In our country, some public university units have or have already been enrolled in this field.
A. Continuous baccalaureate
- University of Tehran (dough and paper orientation)
- Ardebil University Researcher (Dust and Paper Industries)
- University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Sari (Tree and Wood Conservation and Woodworking Industry)
- Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (Wood Conservation and Improvement – Dough and Paper Industries – Wood Compositions)
- Educational secretary of Shahid Rajaee (Furniture engineering trend)
- Gonbad University (Wood and Paper Industries)
- University of Zabol (Woodworking, wood and paper engineering)
- University of Technology Khatam al-Nabiya (PBUH) Behbahan (the trend of pulp and paper industry)
- Semnan University
- University of Tehran (wood-biology and wood anatomy – pulp and paper industry)
- University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Sari (conservation and improvement of wood-pulp and paper industry)
- Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (Wood Products – Wood Conservation and Improvement – Dough and Paper Industries)
- Shahid Beheshti University (pulp and paper industry)
- Tarbiat Modares University (Wood Construct Products of Dairy and Paper Industries)
- Tarbiat University of Shahid Rajaee (wood industry)
- University of Zabol (Wood Constructions Products)
- Dome Higher Education Complex (Wood Constructions Products)
- Tarbiat Modares University (Wood Products)
- University of Tehran (Wood Constructions Products – Dough and Paper Industries – Biology and Wood Anatomy)
- Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (Wood Products – Dough and Paper Industries)
* Types of wood and paper industries
- Wood Industry
- Wood Constructions Products
- Wood protection and refinement
- Biology and Wood Anatomy
- Dairy and paper industries
- Wood design and engineering
- Economy and Wood Market
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