Introduction to Cancer Types symptoms & treatment

Introduction to Cancer Types symptoms & treatment – Cancer is a disease caused by abnormal cells divide uncontrollably & destroys body cells.

Introduction to Cancer Types symptoms & treatment
Introduction to Cancer Types symptoms & treatment

Definition

Cancer is a disease caused by abnormal cells divide uncontrollably & destroys body cells. The term cancer refers to a malignant tumor. Cancer causes due to the loss of control of cellular growth and develop excessive proliferation and spread of cells within the body.

Origin

Most cancers originate from the single abnormal cell that is the monoclonal origin. Cancers are probably initiated by changes in the cell’s DNA sequence or changes in the pattern of gene expression without change in the DNA sequences.

SYNTAX

Difference between the normal cell and cancer cell?

The normal functioning of cells is to differentiate, divide and die in a sequential manner in short they know when to replicate and when to die. Whereas cancer cell doesn’t know when to stop growing, they metastasize from organ to any place within the body. This normal cell when exposed to carcinogenic substances such as chemicals, radiation, etc. develops into a tumor.

Cancer cell forms tumors; they are of two types viz

  • Benign tumor or
  • Malignant tumor.

A benign tumor is not life-threatening for example moles, whereas a malignant tumor is a life-threatening example lung cancer.

Genes involved in cancer?

The regulatory gene involved in the development of cancer they are oncogene and anti-oncogene. Depending on this the there are several morphological and biochemical changes in the tumor cells that can simply distinguish them from a normal cell. Usually grow rapidly, but not always. Some tumor is slow-growing such as lung tumor.

Mechanism

The transition of a normal cell into a tumor cell is referred to as transformation. This process can be divided into three distinct stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. The first step in the process is an initiation in which normal cells are changed so that they are able to form tumors. Promotion is generally associated with increased proliferation of initiated cells, which will increase the population of initiated cells. Progression refers to the process of acquiring additional genetic changes that leads to malignancy and metastasis.

The cancer cell has a substance on its surface that raise the alarm in the immune system that Tumor substance present, an immune cell called APC activate key immune cells B-cell & T-cell. Then Tumor suppressor genes can directly or indirectly inhibit the cell growth some tumor suppressor gene is as follows:-

  • BRCA1 & BRCA2 help in DNA repair,
  • p53 transcription factor &
  • RB1 cell cycle checkpoint.

Types, symptoms & treatment

Cancer is different types of cancer most common are breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer. Apart from this common factor which leads to the cancer are tobacco (e.g. cigarette), obesity, infections, alcohol consumption, etc.

Symptoms are usually seen on cancer patients  For diagnosis CT scans, MRI scans, PET scans, ultrasounds scans, and molecular diagnosis is performed.

 Treatments options are surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, transplantation, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted drug therapy, stem cell transplant.

CONCLUSION

Recent research says that tumor RNA of patients may help in treatment; FDA approval of pembrolizumab for further genomic testing to guide treatment, the gene-editing tool CRISPR is changing the way the study cancer. The researcher also discovered a potential way to turn on one of the most commonly silenced tumor suppressor proteins in cancer called PTEN.

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