introduction To Biotechnology And Genetic Engineering Pdf

INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING
A.J. NAIR, PH.D.
INFINITY SCIENCE PRESS LLC

introduction To Biotechnology And Genetic Engineering

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CONTENTS
PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY 1
Chapter 1 Overview

3 1.1 Introduction and Definition

Molecular Biology Of The Cell

3 1.2 Historical Perspectives

5 1.3 Scope and Importance of Biotechnology

10 1.4 Commercial Potential

13 1.5 An Interdisciplinary Challenge

14 1.6 A Quantitative Approach

15 1.7 Classical vs Modern Concepts

21 1.8 Quality Control in Manufacturing

23 1.9 Product Safety

24 1.10 Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) 25 1.11 Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) 26 1.12 Marketing 28 Review Questions 30
Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering 31 2.1 Introduction 32 2.2 Concept of pH 33 2.3 Physical Variables 44 2.4 Dimensions and Units 45 2.5 Measurement Conventions 53 2.6 Physical and Chemical Property Data 53 2.7 Stoichiometric Calculations 54 2.8 Errors in Data and Calculations 55 2.9 Absolute and Relative Uncertainty 55 2.10 Types of Errors 56 2.11 Statistical Analysis 56 2.12 Presentation of Experimental Data 59 2.13 Data Analysis 60

2.14 Trends 61 2.15 Testing Mathematical Models 62 2.16 Goodness of FIT (Chi-Square Distribution) 64 2.17 Use of Graph Paper with Logarithmic Coordinates 64 2.18 Process Flow Diagram 65 2.19 Material and Energy Balances 68 2.20 Fluid Flow and Mixing 71 2.21 Mass Transfer 72 2.22 Heat Transfer 72 2.23 Bioreactor Designing 72 2.24 Unit Operations 74 2.25 Homogeneous Reactions 75 2.26 Reactor Engineering 80 Review Questions 82
Chapter 3 Biotechnology and Society 83 3.1 Public Perception of Biotechnology 83 3.2 Patenting (Intellectual Property Rights—IPR) 86 3.3 Patents 87 3.4 International Patent Laws 90 3.5 Patenting in Biotechnology 92 3.6 Varietal Protection 94 3.7 Ethical Issues in Biotechnology—Agriculture and Health Care 94 Review Questions 96

GENE CLONING AND DNA ANALYSIS T.A.BROWN

Part 2 BIOMOLECULES 97

Chapter 4 Building Blocks of Biomolecules—Structure and Dynamics 99 4.1 Introduction 99 4.2 Functional Groups of Biomolecules 105 4.3 Building Blocks of Carbohydrates 109 4.4 Building Blocks of Proteins 115 4.5 Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids: Nucleotides 121 4.6 Building Blocks of Lipids: Fatty Acids, Glycerol 127 4.7 Optical Activity and Stereochemistry of Biomolecules 131 4.8 Conformation and Configuration 135 4.9 Biochemical Transformations 137 4.10 Major Metabolic Pathways 143

CONTENTS vii

4.11 Precursor–Product Relationship 169 4.12 Supramolecular Assembly 171 4.13 Bioinformatics and Biomolecular Databases 171 Review Questions 173
Chapter 5 Structure and Function of Macromolecules 175 5.1 Introduction 175 5.2 Carbohydrates 176 5.3 Proteins 181 5.4 Enzymes 196 5.5 Nucleic Acids 205 5.6 Lipids and Biological Membranes 213 Review Questions 216
Chapter 6 Biochemical Techniques 219 6.1 Introduction 219 6.2 Techniques Based on Molecular Weight and Size 220 6.3 Techniques Based on Charge 226 6.4 Techniques Based on Polarity 230 6.5 Techniques Based on Spectroscopy 233 6.6 Techniques Based on Solubility 244 Review Questions 245

Part 3 THE CELL AND DEVELOPMENT 247

Chapter 7 The Basic Unit of Life 249 7.1 Cell Structure and Components 249 7.2 Tissues and Organs 264 7.3 Evolution of Population 271 7.4 Speciation 274 7.5 Biodiversity 275 7.6 Adaptation 276 7.7 Natural Selection 276 7.8 Organization of Life 278 7.9 Size and Complexity 279 7.10 Interaction with the Environment 280 Review Questions 281

viii CONTENTS

Chapter 8 Cell Growth and Development 283 8.1 Cell Division 283 8.2 Cell Cycle 289 8.3 Cell Communication and Signal Transduction Pathways 293 8.4 Movement 295 8.5 Nutrition 298 8.6 Gaseous Exchange 301 8.7 Internal Transport 302 8.8 Maintaining Internal Environment 308 8.9 Reproduction 310 8.10 Animal and Plant Development 319 8.11 Immune Response in Humans and Animals 320 8.12 Apoptosis 323 8.13 Defense Mechanisms in Plants 324 8.14 Plant-Pathogen Interaction 326 8.15 Secondary Metabolism 326 8.16 Defense Strategies in Microbes and Insects 327 Review Questions 328

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry 7th Edition Pdf Free

Chapter 9 Cellular Techniques 331 9.1 Introduction 331 9.2 Microscopy 332 9.3 Cell Sorting 339 9.4 Cell Fractionation 340 9.5 Cell-Growth Determination 343 Review Questions 347
Part 4 GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 349
Chapter 10 The Principles of Genetics 351 10.1 Historical Perspectives 351 10.2 Multiple Alleles 361 10.3 Linkage and Crossing Over 362 10.4 Genetic Mapping 365 10.5 Gene Interaction or Polygenes 368 10.6 Sex-Linked Inheritance 369 10.7 Extra Nuclear Inheritance 372 10.8 Quantitative Inheritance 378

CONTENTS ix

0.9 Gene at the Population Level 381 10.10 Discovery of DNA as Genetic Material 385 10.11 Mutagenesis 388 10.12 DNA Repair 400 10.13 Genetic Disorders 403 10.14 Transposons 404 10.15 Animal and Plant Breeding 406 Review Questions 409
Chapter 11 Genome Function 413 11.1 Genome Organization 413 11.2 Genome-Sequencing Projects 419 11.3 DNA Replication 419 Review Questions 428
Chapter 12 Gene Expression 431 12.1 Fine Structure of a Gene 431 12.2 From Gene to Protein 434 12.3 Gene Expression 435 12.4 Transcription 435 12.5 Genetic Code 439 12.6 Translation 441 12.7 Regulation of Gene Expression 451 12.8 Genetic Basis of Differentiation and Development 457 12.9 Housekeeping Genes 459 12.10 Genetics of Cancer 459 12.11 Immunogenetics 462 12.12 Evolutionary Genetics 463 Review Questions 464
Chapter 13 Genetic Techniques 467 13.1 Introduction 467 13.2 Chromosomal Techniques 468 13.3 Mutagenic Techniques 475 13.4 Recombination in Bacteria 477 13.5 Breeding Methods in Plants 481 13.6 Pedigree Analysis in Humans 486 13.7 DNA Isolation 491 Review Questions 495

Part 5 PROTEIN AND GENE MANIPULATIONS 497

Chapter 14 Protein Structure and Engineering 499 14.1 Introduction to the World of Proteins 499 14.2 Three-Dimensional Shape of Proteins 503 14.3 Structure-Function Relationship in Proteins 511 14.4 Purification of Proteins 525 14.5 Characterization of Proteins 535 14.6 Protein-Based Products 544 14.7 Designing Proteins 549 14.8 Proteomics 554 Review Questions 560
Chapter 15 Recombinant DNA Technology 563 15.1 Introduction 563 15.2 Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology 565 15.3 Making Recombinant DNA 589 15.4 DNA Library 592 15.5 Transgenics—Introduction of Recombinant DNA into Host Cells 595 15.6 Identification of Recombinants 596 15.7 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 598 15.8 DNA Probes 601 15.9 Hybridization Techniques 602 15.10 DNA Sequencing 604 15.11 Site-directed Mutagenesis 609 Review Questions 612
Chapter 16 Genomics 613 16.1 Introduction 613 16.2 Genome Mapping 616 16.3 Genome-Sequencing Projects 619 16.4 Gene Prediction and Counting 626 16.5 Genome Similarity, SNPs, and Comparative Genomics 627 16.6 Pharmacogenomics 628 16.7 Functional Genomics and Microarrays 629 16.8 Molecular Phylogeny 636
CONTENTS xi
Chapter 17 Bioinformatics 641 17.1 History of Bioinformatics 641 17.2 Sequence and Nomenclature 645 17.3 Information Sources 649 17.4 Analysis using Bioinformatics Tools 653 Review Questions 654

Part 6 CELL-CULTURE TECHNOLOGY 655

Chapter 18 Microbial Culture and Applications 657 18.1 Introduction 657 18.2 Microbial Culture Techniques 658 18.3 Measurement and Kinetics of Microbial Growth 665 18.4 Scale-up of a Microbial Process 668 18.5 Isolation of Microbial Products 669 18.6 Strain Isolation and Improvement 672 18.7 Applications of Microbial Culture Technology 676 18.8 Bioethics in Microbial Technology 678 Review Questions 679
Chapter 19 Plant Cell Culture and Applications 681 19.1 Introduction 681 19.2 Cell- and Tissue-Culture Techniques 682 19.3 Applications of Cell and Tissue Culture 691 19.4 Gene-Transfer Methods in Plants 699 19.5 Transgenic Plants with Beneficial Traits 705 19.6 Diagnostics in Agriculture and Molecular Breeding 712 19.7 Bioethics in Plant Genetic Engineering 713 Review Questions 715 References 715
Chapter 20 Animal-cell Culture and Applications 717 20.1 Introduction 717 20.2 Animal Cell Culture Techniques 719 20.3 Characterization of Cell Lines 734 20.4 Scale-up of Animal Cell Culture Process 736 20.5 Applications of Animal-Cell Cultures 742 20.6 Stem-cell Technology 749

xii CONTENTS

20.7 Bioethics in Animal Genetic Engineering 757 Review Questions 759

Biochemistry Satyanarayana Chakrapani

Chapter 21 Applications of Biotechnology (Summary) 761 21.1 Biological Fuel Generation 761 21.2 Single-cell Protein 762 21.3 Sewage Treatment 763 21.4 Environmental Biotechnology 764 21.5 Medical Biotechnology 767 21.6 Agriculture and Forest Biotechnology 768 21.7 Food and Beverage Biotechnology 774 21.8 Safety in Biotechnology 775 Review Questions 776
Appendix: About the CD-Rom 777
Index 791

introduction To Biotechnology And Genetic Engineering INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY Chapter 1 Introduction and Definition 2 Historical Perspectives