Importance of educational technology
The Importance of educational technology (ICT applications in educating) Educational institutions and planners should be explicit about the educational implications (listed above) above all. These broad goals should lead to the selection of different technologies and how to use them. The potential of each technology varies according to how it is used. Haddad and Draxler have identified at least five levels of technology use in their education: presentation, experimental proof, practice and interaction, interaction and collaboration.
Each of the various ICTs (print, audio, and video cassettes, radio and television broadcasting, computers, or the Internet) may be used at the most basic levels, ie, presentation and proof. Except for visual technologies, practice and practice may also be brought about by the use of maximum technologies. On the other hand, network computers and the Internet are ICTs that can provide better interactive and collaborative learning, and their full potential, if only for presentation or proof, will not be realized.
1-1 The use of radio and television broadcasts in radio and television education has been widely used as educational tools from the 1920s and 1950s, respectively. Three general approaches application of radio and television in education are:
(1) direct class teaching, where broadcast programming substitutes for teachers on a temporary basis to be.
2. Broadcast a school program in which broadcast planning provides and supplies additional education and training resources, if not available.
3. General educational planning, at the community level and national and international authorities that provide public and informal education opportunities.
The most notable and best-illustrated example is the direct teaching class approach, Interactive Radio Training (IRI). This training includes direct teaching and training, prepared 20-30 minutes, on a daily basis. Radio lessons are about specific topics at the levels of mathematics, science, health, and language, which are intended to improve the quality of education and provide a structured helper to teachers whose levels of education are poor in schools without educational resources. Projects in EducationInteractive radio programs have been implemented in Latin America and Africa, in Asia, these projects were first implemented in Thailand in 1980, and Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal also implemented their projects in 1990
What distinguishes the interactive radio education project from other in-person training programs is that its primary goal is to enhance the quality of learning (and not just to develop educational access), and in both formal and informal ways, there are many successes.
Worldwide research has shown that many interactive radio education projects have a positive impact on learning outcomes and educational equity. And with its savings on a scale, it has proven to be an effective strategy for related costs.
Mexico’s Telesecundaria program is another example of direct teaching of a class that uses television broadcasting. The program in Mexico in 1968 was used as a cost-effective strategy for the development of low-level schools in small and remote districts. Perraton describes this program as follows:
Television production programs by satellite throughout the country according to the timetable (from 8 am to 2 pm and 2 am to 8 pm) for education schoolsBroadcast distances and cover secondary courses as well as elementary courses. Each hour is tuned to an area and typically follows a steady routine, a 15-minute television program, and then directed by a book and teacher. In this way, students are faced with a variety of teachers on the television, but a major teacher at the school is taught to teach all disciplines on a platform. The design of this program has undergone many changes throughout the year. The purpose of this strategy is to integrate community issues into programs, provide children with integrated education, and engage the community broadly in organizing and managing the school and stimulating students to engage in community activities.
In Asia, 44 Universities of Radio and Television in China, the Universitas Terbuka University of Indonesia and the Indre Gandhi National University of Azahra have used radio and television programs for direct and broadcast school programs to benefit more from the population. To be For these agencies, broadcasting is often accompanied by printed issues and audio cassettes.
In 2000, the University of the Air released 16 radio and 160 television series. Each of these includes 15 to 45 minutes of nationwide speech broadcasts once a week for 15 weeks. Courses are distributed through university stations from 6:00 am to 12:00 pm. Students also receive leaflets, face to face training and online tutorials. But unlike direct education, school schedule does not mean a teacher’s successor, but simply “as an enrichment of traditional education.” Broadcasting a school program is more flexible than interactive radio education because its teachers decide how to integrate broadcasts into the classroom. Large companies offering school radio programs are the British Broadcasting Institute and Japan’s NHK Broadcasting Station. In developing countries, the distribution of school programs is often the result of the partnership between the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Intelligence.
General educational planning involves a wide range of types of programs (news programs, documentaries, question and test shows, educational cartoons, etc.), which are the result of formal and informal education opportunities for all learners. In one sense, any radio and television programming with content or education can be among those programs. Some notable examples include the American Sesame Street TV show, Geographic Information and Exploration Channels, and the Voice of America radio program. The Village Radio Radio, launched in Canada in 1940 and has functioned as a global controversial model, is another example of informal educational planning.1-2
Teleconference and its applications in the teleconference (teleconferencing) implies “an interactive electronic communication between people located in two or more different locations”. There are four types of teleconferencing based on their nature and interactive scope and technology power:
1 – Audio conference 2 – Graphics conference – Audiovisual conference 3 – Video conference 4 – Web
conference call audio conference is the exchange of live audio messages on a telephone network. And as audio and audio conferencing can be done, texts and still images such as low-bandwidth linear designs, graphs and photos can be exchanged during audio messaging.
The video conferencing allows not only sound and graphics but also motion pictures. This technology uses a satellite or television network (cable broadcaster) instead of a telephone line. Web conferencing, as its name suggests, transmits text, graphics, and audiovisual media over the Internet. Which includes the use of a computer with a browser and communication that can be simultaneous or non-synchronous.
1-3 Applications of computers and the Internet There are
three general approaches to teaching and learning about the use of Internet and computer education:
1. Computer and Internet learning, in which technology literacy is the ultimate goal.
2 – Learning with computers and the Internet in which technology facilitates the learning process during courses.
3 – Learning through the computer and the Internet and integrating the development of technical skills with the use of training courses.
3-3.1 Computer and Internet Learning Computer and Internet
learning focuses on the development of technology literacy and includes:
1. Basic concepts and skills: Words, concepts and basic operations.
2. Keyboard and mouse
application. 3. Utilizing useful tools such as word processing, spreadsheet (financial computing programs), databases and graphics programs.
4 – Using research tools such as search engine and email
5 – Basic skills in programming applications and multi-purpose applications such as Logo or HyperStudio
6 – Knowledge about the impact of technology changes
3-3.2. Learning with computers and the Internet
Learning with Technology focuses on how technology can be a means of learning in all courses Training and it includes:
1 – Presentation, to demonstrate and display and change data on the use of productivity tools.
2. Use specific types of educational programs such as educational games, practice and repetitions, simulations, private lessons, virtual labs, intellectual imagery and graphic presentation of abstract concepts, compilation, and intelligent systems.
3 – The use of online resources and information on CDs or online, such as encyclopedias, interactive maps and atlases, electronic publications, and other
literacy-related technology is appropriately required, this refers to the two-stage process in which before It is possible to teach technology to learn about these technologies, although measures have been taken in this area to integrate the two approaches.
1-3-3 Learning through the computer and the Internet
Learning through computers and the Internet combines the learning of the application of technology with learning by them. In that way, learning technology skills is immediately or when the learner needs to learn (when involved in the course related activities). For example, high school students who must submit a report on the impact of rising oil prices on society for the economy class may begin their online research, spreadsheet programs and databases to help organize aggregation data And use the word processing program to prepare their own written reports.
The CHILD project is a student-centered, computer-driven, computer-aided learning technology
The CHILD project is the development of computer-aided training programs, which was developed by the University of Florida for K5 (preschoolers and handicrafts) in 1988. The program focuses on three parts: reading, writing, and math. Each CHILD class project has a computer location between 3 and 6 computers. Some areas focus on skill training, while others focus on the development of concepts. The teacher determines the educational software needed in each place to match the goals of the course. Student groups work in their own positions, and the teacher traverses students to help, estimate, and encourage students. When the student completes an activity, he moves to the next position, and at the end of the day, the teacher brings together all the class members to discuss and reflect on the activities of that day. Teachers form groups of different bases and specific topics (5 or 3 or 2K), and work with children over three years to determine which software is more appropriate for the subject and give students the auspices Who learn in their own way. In this regard, pieces of training will be integrated into the teachers within one year, as well as research pamphlets for curriculum design and technology integration.
1-4 Application of Computer and Internet in Distance Education
Many high-level educational institutions offer distance learning courses to improve the quality of their programs from the Internet. The virtual university of the Monterrey Institute of Technology, Mexico, combines a print run, broadcasts live and internet broadcasts to provide students with courses in Mexico and a number of Latin American countries. Similarly, the Virtual University of Africa, sponsored by the World Bank in 1997, has been using satellite and Internet technology to provide distance education opportunities for people from many English and French-speaking countries throughout Africa.
Internet and web-based initiatives at the secondary level have also been developed. Virtual high schools are the result of initiatives by a national coalition of educational areas in the United States to promote, create and share Web-based courses. However, the biggest moves in remote learning have been taken by the private sector, not in academies. Merrill Lynch estimates that earnings in major American education markets will reach $ 2.3 billion in 2000 from $ 18 billion in 2003. The number of legal universities has risen from 400 to 1800 over the past 13 years. These universities are in domestic organizations and multinational corporations that use video conferencing and the Internet to train staff.
The new move in South Korea began in 1998 with the launch of the virtual university virtualization project, which involved the participation of 65 universities and five companies. The objectives of the project were to:
1. Create a low-cost, low-cost virtual education system.
2. Create and run web-based courses or other types of distance learning.
3. Identify the appropriate policies and standards for setting up a university. Virtualization
4. Experimenting experiences During the testing period,
participating institutions tested the project with several different technologies, including satellite broadcasting, visual conferences, intranets, and the Internet. Two years after the project, South Korean leaders and trainers continued to engage in conflict management concepts, capacity building, cost savings, and free and affordable access.
3-5 Remote Collaboration
Online learning, where students are involved in formal online courses, is perhaps the most commonly used idea to use the Internet. Although it is not the only application. Web-based collaboration tools such as email, message bundles, chat and web conferencing provide learners with other learners as well as teachers, coaches, researchers and researchers, scientists and artists, industry leaders, and politicians. Anyone who can make the learning process more productive and also has access to the Internet.
Organized use, web resources, and collaborative tools are called remote collaboration for the proper purpose of educational programs. Judi Harris calls on distance learning as an educational exchange that encourages people to work with the use of the Internet and its resources in different places. Distance learning based on educational programs is regulated by the teacher. The largest user of that email is related to each other. Many remote collaboration activities and projects have Web sites for support. Projects that use technology to create activities that are not possible without technology, and enable students to be active, collaborative, creative, and collaborative evaluators.
3-6. Notes on the use of ICT in education
Impacts, costs, equity, and endurance are broadly intertwined checklist that should be considered when considering the impact of ICT use in education.
3-6-1 Effectiveness of ICT
The impact of ICT education depends on how and for what purpose. ICTs do not work for everyone and everywhere, like any educational tool or other teaching methods.
Access enhancement is difficult to determine the extent to which ICTs have contributed to the development of access to basic education. Because most of the activities for this purpose have not been reported in a small scale.
But there are exceptions, as each of these 11 universities, one of the largest and most recognized free educational institutions around the world (the Free Institute of the United Kingdom, Indo-Azad University of India, the Chinese Television University, Universitas Terbuka of Indonesia and the University of South Africa) Annually more than 100,000 people sign up, and they provide about 2.8 million people. Compare this with the 14 million merged registrations of 3,500 colleges and universities in the United States.
High Quality – Research on the effect of broadcast radio programs on the quality of basic education is low. But the slightest study suggests that its educational effectiveness is more than traditional classes.
The interactive radio education project has been analyzed much more than the training program’s broadcasting projects and the findings point to the impact of the project on improving the quality of education, as demonstrated by the scores added in the standard tests. Instead, estimating the impact of computers, the Internet and related technologies is ambiguous. In his comprehensive study, Russell claims that there is no significant difference between the test scores of students who use ICT-based curricula and those who see face-to-face training. Although most people claim that such generalizations are not certain, they also believe there are a large number of ICT-based distance learning courses that have not been tested yet.
Research shows that the use of the computer as a trainer in combination with traditional training for teaching and training and providing training enhances learning in traditional courses and basic skills. Students also learn faster, display more memory and are encouraged to learn better if they work with computers. There is still no significant evidence that the new learning environment increases learning efficiency.
1 – a generalization of physical facilities
2 – hardware and networking
3 – software
4 – UPGRADE and switching (about 5 years)
variable or reimbursement costs
1 – specialized development
2 – connections including Internet access and telephone
3. Maintenance and support include electricity, telephone, and logistics
costs. For cost effectiveness, fixed costs should be distinguished from variable costs and be balanced between them. If the fixed cost of a technology project is high, but variable costs are low, then the cost will increase on the scale. This mode is available for broadcast radio broadcasts.
Primary schools may have no solid reason to invest in computers, but there are reasons for this in secondary schools, but this will increase the overall cost of the school. Another dimension of the cost is the location of the project and who and at what cost it will pay. In projects where computers are connected to the Internet, a school or student, or both, has variable costs for maintenance and repairs, Internet costs, and telephone line costs. In front of these projects, there are radio programs in which the learner only has to pay for the purchase of a radio and a few batteries.
6.3.1 Access to ICT Access Despite the
the widespread disparity in access to ICTs between rich and poor countries and between different groups across countries, there are concerns that the challenge of using ICT in education, along with the existing divide between economic and social lines Will expand cultural, geographic and gender. In terms of merit, everyone has the opportunity to participate equally, but access to various factors, either as a user or as a producer, is difficult and difficult due to their resources. So initial differences are enhanced and even enlarged. Consequently, international education planners face a tough challenge, and it’s how to solve the problem and help develop it.
3-6-4 Sustainability and sustainability of ICT training projects Tolerability
and sustainability One of the aspects of ICT development programs in education is often neglected. Many of the projects and programs come with a wind and go down a breeze and are quickly forgotten, and this is true of many ICT-related projects. Often, these projects are started by third-party donors, such as international organizations or companies, but they are paying enough attention to creating a sustainable mechanism by which educational institutions or community involved in the drummer can cover the project and pursue it, or with other centers. The sponsor will not be a partner. But spending and finance are not the only obstacles to the sustainability of projects. According to Cisler, the continuation of ICT programs is fourfold: social, political, technical, and economic.
2. Key Challenges in Integrating ICT in Education
While valuable lessons can be learned through best practices around the world, there is no formula for determining the best level of ICT integration in the education system. The most important challenges policymakers, planners, managers, coaches, and other stakeholders must take into account are comprehensive training and planning policies, infrastructure, language and capacity building, and finance.
4.1 Policy and educational planning
To achieve the promotion and improvement of education through ICT, clear and clear objectives, guidance lines, the mobilization of resources and policy requirements at all levels to understand the primary goal must be considered.
Some of the essential elements for ICT planning are listed below:
1- A correct analysis of the current situation of the educational system. The effects of ICTs should be taken into account as current institutional arrangements and procedures, especially those that push ICT and its barriers to be identified, as well as those related to education and training, infrastructure, capacity building, language, and content. And financial affairs
2. Determine the educational objectives at different levels of education, as well as the various uses of ICT that can best be used to achieve these goals. Policy makers need to understand and understand the potential of different ICTs when they are used for different concepts and purposes. Also, as with the best practices around the world, it is about the primacy of the educational and financial needs and the human resources capacity and bottlenecks in the country, and how these experiences can be adapted to the specific needs of the country.
3. Identify stakeholders and coordinate actions among different stakeholders.
4. Leading an ICT-based selection model-Even the best-designed models or proven ones can be tested on a small scale. Such guidance is essential for identifying, correcting, remitting, Tupelo, etc.
5. Identify existing financial resources and develop strategies for generating financial resources to enhance the use of ICT in the medium term.
2.2 Infrastructure Challenges in ICT-Based Education
Policymakers should also examine the presence of various types of ICT in the country in general and in the educational system (at all levels) in particular. For example, “a basic need for ICT-based education (using computers and online) is to access computers and Internet services at the community level, especially schools and families. In sum, the use of ICT in education should follow, be it in the community, rather than guide it.
2.3. Capacity-building Challenges
Various efforts should be made throughout the education system for the success of ICT integration.
Ideally, these issues should be addressed in the pre-service teacher training sessions and also in-service training. In some countries, such as Singapore, Malaysia, and the United Kingdom, the recognition of ICT requires the use of ICT. ICT is rapidly transforming technology, and even the most elite ICT teachers need to upgrade their skills and welcome the latest advancements and best practices. Although the first focus of attention is skills with special applications, the other four, if not important in magnitude, are equal to it.
Research on the use of ICT in a variety of educational fields over the years shows the teachers’ disability as a constraint to the success of the plan, to understand why they should use ICT and how to properly use it to teach better. . Unfortunately, much of the specialized advancement of teachers in ICT has been in the field of training tools and emphasis on their use in education.
With the student-centered learning process, the teachers’ anxiety about being dropped by technology or losing their authority in the classroom can be seen as an obstacle in the vocabulary of teachers having a deep understanding and a strong sense of change in their role.
Will ICT take the place of teachers
Even if the parents alone can not find a solution, they will get help from others. For this reason, because parents like to and want to learn ways to fight the child’s problems and behaviors, there must be opportunities for them to learn.
One of the possibilities that add to their learning is to attend parenting classes. Cantor believes in the third principle, the parent learn what they like. By following this important principle, the topic of discussion in classrooms should be interesting for all participants, and finally, in the fourth principle of parent education, “parents learn something that relates to the experience of their relationship with their children.”
Parents’ Participation in Education:
Parents’ collaboration with the school, although it has been important for many reasons for the past, in recent decades, the need for this partnership has increased due to the rapid social and economic changes and changes that have occurred in the values and lifestyles of the communities. It is re-established.
Barriers to home and school collaboration:
Major barriers to parent communication and coaches can be divided into three groups:
1. Teacher-related factors: In the case of teachers, sometimes unconsidered and unconscious encounters some of the teachers dare to attend school from a parent. For example, a lack of self-esteem that can be caused by various factors, such as a lack of professional expertise, causes some teachers to take a defensive stance against parents, especially parents who have higher education than theirs, and refer Parents take the school and their concerns about their children’s educational status as a threat to themselves and to question their educational methods and practices.
On the other hand, some teachers, especially in deprived areas, may not be able to produce fruitful relationships with the parents, having prejudged the illiterate parents and blaming the family for school failure.
2- School Factors: Many school meetings are held for parents in a formal and formal environment with similar and dull programs. Parents usually do not have the role to play in regulating the content of the programs, and they are silent listeners who are expected to follow the program as they have been set. The content of the programs is in many cases inconsistent with the needs and expectations of parents who have different culture and attitudes.
On the other hand, the teachers who own the main houses are empty in these meetings. While their presence is not only essential, it is an important factor in attracting parents to school.
3. Parents Factors: The home and school communication barriers are not restricted to the teacher and the school. The social-cultural conditions of some parents, especially their past experiences with school, can be a barrier to effective communication. Many parents of deprived social classes do not have enough information about the school and they are not aware of the educational status and rights of their children. They see fewer education problems for their children in terms of material hardship, cultural constraints, and family education methods, and in most cases, they attribute their lack of talent and abilities to their children.
In contrast to this group, there are parents who have a high level of education and positive attitudes towards school collaboration, asks for close cooperation with the teacher and school authorities for the growth and prosperity of their children, but common and one-way meetings And the content of the programs is not their satisfaction.
Some Success Factors for Home and School Cooperation Programs:
The success of home-school co-operation programs depends on a variety of factors, most important of which, as mentioned, is the involvement of parents for various events and activities, and not just for the Parents and Coaches Association.
For example, a parent can be involved in a variety of activities. As
Volunteering, attending teacher class activities, attending lectures at public meetings and in advisory committees. Naturally, effective home and school co-operation programs are different for different levels of education.
Preschool programs are successful programs that sustain, enhance parenting skills and support them. In these programs, interaction with the parent should be direct and personal, and the goals of the activity for the parent should be fully understood.
Pre-Institutions for the Development of Home and School Partnership:
Considering the important effects of parent participation and cooperation, the following institutions are being proposed to bring home and school closer: these pre-institutions are based on the success of some countries and with regard to studies and research in Iran on the cooperation between home and school It has been done.
1- Setting up meetings according to needs: For parental cooperation, it is necessary for them to be arranged during the year, which is not designed solely to address school financial deficiencies, but to the particular needs of the parent who can participate in any school in the company. Designed to be. If the atmosphere in these meetings is accepted and accepted by all participants, parents will feel that they will be in sessions and will play an effective role in the education of their children.
2. Meetings by Teachers: Based on the studies conducted, parents will be more likely to welcome smaller and less crowded meetings organized by the class teacher. It was suggested that attending meetings should not necessarily be school principals, but that teachers would invite schoolchildren to attend school on their parents’ occasions. In these sessions, teachers will have the opportunity to discuss issues with a parent with parents who are less likely to attend school and who need to cooperate more with the school in order to address the issues they need, or To meet privately and get involved.
3. Teachers and Teachers’ Training in Family Relationships: Because the success of parent meetings and coaches depends on the skills and communication abilities of the executives and the administrators of these meetings, managers, teachers and all those responsible for managing this Such as meetings, receive comprehensive training on relationships with parents and their social-cultural differences and how to provide them with essential assistance.
The responsibility of planning for the education of school officials and teachers in relation to parents can be expected from the Office of General Instruction. Meanwhile, teacher education centers can play an important role in informing teachers about the relationship with parents.
4. Research on parent associations and educators: In order to assess the effectiveness of school associations and efforts to improve them, a large-scale research effort was undertaken by the Parents’ Association and coaches from the Ministry of Education, Universities and other higher education institutions In terms of how to organize meetings, the content of the programs, its evaluation, and the testing of ways and means of meeting management so that managers can build on their experiences and use of these types of research in parent associations and coaches.
5. School space: The elimination of the border between home and school is necessary to provide an environment where parents can travel freely in different hours without disturbing the school. School architecture and the arrangement of various indoor spaces are a major factor in the frequent visit of parents to the school.
It is suggested that, when designing educational spaces and arranging and sharing space for various educational activities of the school, it is recommended that special spaces and places be taken into consideration for the adoption of the parents, so that the parents at the time of visiting the school in an environment where their visit is private To be able to speak with a teacher, counselor or school principal, or to attend school at these places to carry out planned activities to complete and strengthen school education.
6- Responsible for family relationship: It is a good practice to improve the relationship with a parent who can be practiced in Iran, especially in high school and high schools.
The degree of concentration or lack of focus The curriculum system can be considered as a function of how decision makers are combined and the degree of flexibility available in the curriculum. The degree of involvement of decision-makers or influencers in curricula varies according to the political system of countries.
Individuals or groups such as general policymakers, education ministers, provincial and regional administrators, teachers’ associations, parent associations and trainers, curriculum specialists, universities and research and development centers, teachers and students, on syllabus elements Affect. In web-based curricula, in addition to individuals and groups, other people such as IT specialists, graphic designers and media specialists play a more significant role in determining the elements of the curriculum.
If the web-based curriculum group, and at the head of the teacher, are highly capable of learning management and training skills, can easily contribute positively to the curriculum. In such a situation, the curriculum tends towards decentralization and vice versa.
Contrary to popular belief, which often assumes the role of the teacher as part of the web-based curriculum, the teacher plays a central role in this type of curriculum, which is more prominent than his role in the traditional curriculum.
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- Seginer, R., Parents’ Educational Expectations and Children’s Academic Achievements: A Literature Review, Merril Palmer Quarterly 29, 1-23, 1983.
- Moles o Synthesis of Recent Research on Parents Participation in Children’s Education, Educational Leadership, 40, no., 2.4-47, 1982.
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