History of sewage treatment
Sewage treatment has a long history, several thousand years ago wastewater and waste were removed by collecting them in a region with natural cycles. But in the past, because of the removal of sewage at low levels, there was no problem with their contamination, and natural decomposition could completely eliminate these pollutants from the environment. With the advent of the first townspeople, the use of pits and wells became popular. Based on available resources, the first initial sewage treatment systems will be from 2500 to 3500 BC. Mesopotamian civilization, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans have been among the founders of sewage collection systems in history. According to the evidence, they dug rivers by collecting sewage outside the city.
Bottom process in the production of biological products
After centuries, sewage treatment had become more regular in about 1912, and basic standards for wastewater treatment were introduced in the BOD, which was also referred to in many countries. At the same time, before the First World War, the first refineries were built.
Various methods are available for physical, chemical and biological wastewater treatment, which can be done in general at three levels of preliminary, secondary and advanced refinement. The initial purification, which is also known as the removal of heavier solids by gravity-induced deposition, is one of the first treatment modalities. At the same time, the secondary treatment uses the ability of microorganisms to remove organic compounds of sewage and convert them to carbon dioxide, water, and energy. There are two modes in using secondary purification systems: the growth of suspension (active sludge) or connected growth (biofilm). The attached growth systems actually include the bedding of the stone or plastic, which microorganisms begin to grow with the binding to the surface, and the sewage is encountered by decreasing organic load by passing through these levels.
The microbial cell stabilization method
The idea of using microorganisms in sewage treatment was first introduced in 1870 by Edward Frankland. Progress in this area has led to the acquisition of technology trickling filters was. In 1893, trickling filters for the first time by Salford in Manchester, which was built in 1920, was working.
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