Groundwater purification methods
In recent decades, the release of oil hydrocarbons from storage tanks, pipeline fractures and accidents has been one of the main causes of groundwater contamination. Various technologies have been developed to clean up groundwater pollution, such as physical, chemical and biological processes. The following table provides the most common technology for removing groundwater from oil pollution.
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The physical purge of groundwater is considered as one of the non-economic processes that can generally be utilized at high water efficiency in aquifer beds of low depth. Since physical purges are considered as energy-intensive technologies, the use of these methods is relatively limited.
Common technologies in removing oil pollution from groundwater
|Technology||type of action||Advantages||Disadvantages||Effects on native bacteria|
|Pumping and refining||Out of place||High efficiency||uneconomical||Depending on the type of clearing process|
|Air intake||in place||environmental||Low efficiency||Tangible increase|
|Absorb||in place||High efficiency, environmental||uneconomical||No effect|
|Chemical purification||in place||High efficiency||Create health and environmental problems, non-economic||Tangible decrease|
|Biodegradation||in place||Environmental, economic||Time-consuming||Tangible increase|
Many papers on chemical methods and the absorption of hydrocarbon pollutants from underground water have been published that prove the usability and efficiency of these methods in groundwater purification. However, the most important weakness of these methods is the need for chemicals as well as the recovery of adsorbents, which makes it difficult to work with these technologies. In addition, the most important problems with both physical and chemical methods are the possibility of producing side products of the reaction with pollutants, which can be even more dangerous than the primary contaminant. In order to solve this problem, biodegradation has been proposed as an economical and fully functional technology that utilizes the potential of microorganisms to remove contaminants.
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The biodegradation method in the field scale can be implemented in three ways: natural purification, biological stimulation, and biological inoculation. Among these methods, natural clearing is the simplest method in which the only concentration of pollutants in the site is examined and recorded by the natural removal process by the microorganisms present in the bed. Biological stimulation based on providing suitable environmental conditions for microbial populations is carried out by adding nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and other minerals to the underground water bed. In other words, this method is performed by optimizing the physical and chemical conditions for the growth and activity of native microorganisms. In the absence of or a low natural microbial population of underground water that can decompose pollutants, biological inoculation can accelerate contaminant decomposition. In this process, biodegradation is performed by adding microorganisms that remove contaminants to the bed
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