GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY:– Introduction to plant genetic engineering and biotechnology, gene identification, gene isolation, synthesis of genes and gene cloning. Restriction enzymes and vectors.


Regeneration in crop plants. Gene transfer systems-vector mediated gene transfer, microinjection, electroporation, direct DNA uptake, gene gun technique. Selectable markers and reporter system. Application of Plant Genetic Engineering and biotechnology Transgenic crops – application of recombinant DNA technology – current status and future prospects.

The regulation mechanism for genetically modified crops. Biosafety issues of transgenic crops. Molecular Breeding morphological, biochemical and DNA based markers (RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSLPetc.);

Mapping populations (F2s, backcrosses, RILs, NILsand DHs). Molecular mapping and tagging of agronomically important traits. QTLs analysis in crop plants. Marker-assisted selection for qualitative and quantitative traits. Gene pyramiding.

Biotechnology application inmate sterility/hybrid breeding. Embryo rescue, somatic hybridization, and doubled haploids. Biotechnology in PGR management


National and international history of seed testing. Seed testing network in India. National and international seed testing rules. Seed testing organizations. Seed sampling, heterogeneity test. Sample receipt and registration.

Physical purity analysis. Determination of other seeds by number and determination of other distinguishable for different crops, seedling evaluation. Moisture test. Tetrazolium test –

principles, procedure, and evaluation. Testing for coated/pelleted seeds. Testing for varietal verification, grow-out test. Seed health. Insect damage. Reporting of seed testing results. Laboratory layout, furnishing, and management. Variability in seed testing results, factors affecting variability, use of tolerance tables in seed testing. Sequential sampling analysis. Seed dormancy, types and methods to break it.

Weed seed identification. Preservation and storage of guard samples.

History of seed quality control. Importance of good quality seed. Seed quality standards – definition and concept.

Seed quality components and field standards. Concept and purpose and phases of seed certification. Certification agency. Variety eligibility, class and sources of seed, verification of seed source.

Unit of certification, field inspection and reporting of results, comparing field observations with minimum standards, grow-out test, tolerance levels. Seed analyst and his duties. Laboratory evaluation and packaging, seed lot size and construction of seed lot number, certified seed label, certification tag,

the validity period of certification. Seeds Act and seed rules and law enforcement. Seed control order. Seed policy. Seed inspectors-powers and duties, inspection procedures and types of equipment required

OECD- the role of OECD in standardizing the seed certification procedures. UPOV- the role of UPOV in the international seed trade. Consumers Protection Act. Weights and Measures Act and Packaging Act.


Historical development of seed health testing and significance of seed-borne diseases and insect pests. Important storage pests namely seed-borne plant pathogens (fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, nematodes),

insects, mites, rodents and birds associated with seed under field and storage conditions. Detection of seed-borne pathogens and insects. Deterioration of seed due to storage fungi, insects, rodents, birds. Detection of damage and estimation of losses,

conditions favoring various storage pests. Pest development and control. Management of insect pests, mites, rodents, and birds through seed treatments (biological, chemical, physical and mechanical). Seed certification and plant quarantine.

Practices for safe storage, an examination of seeds for infection. Washing test, incubation method. Seedling symptomatology test. Histopathology. Embryo Count method. NaOH seed soak method. Immunoassays and nucleic acid-based techniques.

Collection and identification of storage insect pests. Dose estimation of various seed protectants, methods of fumigation, fumigants, its safe handling and use, plant protection pieces of equipment and their use.


Introduction and importance of seed processing. Different methods of seed drying, including dehumidification and its impact on seed quality. Relative humidity and equilibrium moisture content of the seed. Preparing seed for –

processing: scalper debearded, scarifier, huller, seed cleaner and grader, screen cleaners, specific gravity separators, indented cylinder, separator, velvet separator, spiral separator, disc separator, color

sorter. Seed treatments-methods of seed treatment, seed treating compounds, sed disinfestations:

Packaging: principles and practices and materials. Processing plant design and layout. Delinting machines. Seed storage: importance and factors affecting it, changes during storage, concepts, and significance of moisture equilibrium, method of maintaining safe seed moisture content. Thumb rule and its relevance, loss of viability in important agricultural and horticultural crops, viability equation and nomograph.

Conservation of orthodox and recalcitrant seeds. Methods to minimize the loss of seed vigor and viability. Storage losses due to pests. Factors influencing storage losses. Storage methods and godown sanitation. Storage structure. Storage pests and their control.

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