Fermentation Definition Designing & constructing

Fermentation is a vessel for the growth of microorganisms which while not permitting contamination and enables the provision of conditions necessary for the maximal production of desire products. The fermenter is also called a bio-fermenter. The main function of a fermenter is to provide a controlled environment for the growth of microorganisms or animal cells to obtain the desired product.

Fermentation Definition Designing & constructing
Fermentation Definition Designing & constructing

Best Fermentation Definition Designing processes & constructing

Designing & constructing fermenter

The following points must be considered while designing & constructing the fermenter as follows;

  • The vessel should be capable of being operated aseptically for no of days & should be reliable for long term operation & meet the requirement of containment
  • Adequate aeration & agitation should be provided to meet the metabolic requirement of microorganisms, however, mixing should not cause damage to the organism.
  • Power consumption should be as low as possible.
  • A system of temperature control should be provided.
  • A system of pH control should be provided.
  • Sampling facilities should be provided.
  • The vessel should be designed to required minimal use of labor in operation, harvesting, cleaning & maintenance.
  • Evaporation losses from the fermenter should not be excessive.
  • The vessel should be constructed to ensure a smooth internal surface using wells.
  • The vessel should be of similar geometry to both smaller & larger vessels in the pilot plant or plant to scale up.
  • The cheapest material which enables the satisfactory result to be achieved should be used to be cost-effective.
  • There should be adequate service provision for individual plants.

Fermentation A Metabolic Process

Designing & constructing fermenter
Designing & constructing fermenter

Functions of various parts of the fermenter

  1. Baffles: Prevent vortex and improve aeration efficiency.
  2. Impeller: Agitator requires d to achieve the number of mixing objectives.
  3. Sparger: Device which introduced air into the liquid in a fermenter.

Also, Check Helpful Notes Paper

Inoculum development

The process of production of inoculum is called inoculum development. The culture used to inoculate in fermentation must be in a healthy active state thus minimizing the length of the lag phase in a subsequent fermentation it must be available in large volume to provide an inoculum of optimum size, it must be free of contamination & must retain the product forming capability.


The critical factor for obtaining suitable inoculum is the choice of the culture medium & the suitability of an inoculum medium is determined by a subsequent performance by an inoculum in the production stage. Lincoln (1960) stated that the lag time in fermentation is minimized by growing culture in a final type medium. To reduce the lag phase and thus the fermentation time.

Quantity of inoculum normally used 3-10% of medium volume relatively large inoculum volume is used to generate a large volume of biomass in production time, thus increasing in vessel productivity.


  • Master culture is reconstituted & plated on the solid medium approx 10 colonies of typical morphology of high producer are selected and inoculated on to slopes as the sub-master culture. At this stage, the shaker flask may be Inoculated to check the productivity of the culture.
  • A sub-master culture is used to inoculate shake flask having 250-1000cm3 containing 50-1000 cm3 of the medium which in turn is used in an inoculum for a larger flask for laboratory fermentation which may be then used for inoculating pilot scale fermenter.
  • A culture parity check is carried out at each stage to detect contamination as easily as possible.

Also, Check Helpful Notes Paper

Criteria for transfer of inoculum:-

  1. The most widely used criteria for transfer of vegetative inoculum is biomass and parameters such as dry weight, turbidity, wet weight, residual nutrient concentration & morphological form.
  2. The most convenient parameter to use as an indicator of inoculum quality & this parameter includes dissolved oxygen, pH, and an effluent gas.
  3. The use of carbon dioxide production rate as transfer criteria requires analysis of fermenter effluent air.
  4. It should be emphasized that the amount of biomass transferred was standardized for three fermentation & thus differences in performance is due to the physiological condition.
  5. Using probe worker develops an automatic inoculum dispenser allowing a preset viable yeast mast to transfer from yeast storage vessel to brewery fermentation.


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