Fermentation of ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Given the expiration of fossil fuels, conventional energy sources require renewable, efficient, affordable, easy, safe and durable resources. In recent decades, the production of ethanol microbes has been a common fuel for the future, as fossil fuels are coming to an end. Some microorganisms such as calrodromic acid and yeast, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zimonos Mobilyas , are candidates for ethanol production.
Under the conditions of anaerobic growth, microorganisms have the ability to use glucose in the metabolic pathway of Ambden -Mareirov -Parnaz. Carbohydrates are phosphorylated in the metabolic pathway and the final product is two molecules of ethanol and carbon dioxide. During the fermentation process of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, other effective parameters can specifically affect specific growth, and inhibition can be caused by concentrations of the substrate or product. The visible population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , its specific intensity from fermentation and the intensity of sugar consumption, is directly related to the favorable culture conditions. It was reported by Naghdvitana and Etinkaras that the addition of ethanol to the culture medium was less toxic for Saccharomyces cerevisiaeIt has a cell-based ethanol production 7. It shows that there are metabolic-related products that can be inhibitory and can show impurities in the ethanol production system. The death rate is also lower due to the addition of ethanol to similar conditions to the internal ethanol concentration.
The use of biofilm reactors for ethanol production has improved the performance and economy of fermented processes. Stabilization of microbial cells for fermentation has led to an increase in the efficiency and efficiency of ethanol to eliminate inhibitory effects by creating high concentrations of the substrate and the product. Recent work on ethanol production in a stabilized cell-based reactor shows that ethanol production using zinc. Mobile has doubled. Z. Stabilized recombinant mucilage is also successfully used with high concentrations of sugar (12 to 15%).
The potential of the use of stabilized cells in fermentation processes for fuel production has recently been described. If healthy microbial cells are directly stabilized, the removal of microorganisms from the lower manual product can be neglected and the loss of intracellular enzymatic activity can be at a minimal level.
Recently, biomarker activity has become more prominent, as it is known to be a factor in bioreactor performance. Ultimately, stabilized cells control the intake of the substrate. Therefore, due to the presence of heterogeneous materials such as fixed cells, there is no flow in the granules and cells can only penetrate the food. Stabilization of cells on a solid matrix is a good tool for maintaining high biocompatibility. Cells are divided inside and outside the matrix. Alginate is widely used in food, medicine, textiles and paper products. Alginate in these products is used to increase the thickness, stabilize the gel and form the film. Sodium alginate is a linear polysaccharide that is commonly used in many marine seaweed or algae species, which is called alginate. The copolymer contains two oronic acids or polyureonic acids. Initially, di-manneconuric acid (M) and alglucoturonic acid (G) were compared. Acid alginate can be accumulated, soluble in water or insoluble depending on the type of salt. The exchange of sodium alginate ions with calcium ions in solution may be used to solidify sodium alginate in a calcium chloride solution. Sodium salts, other alkali metals, and ammonium are soluble in water, while multivalent cationic salts such as calcium, other than magnesium ions, are not soluble in water.
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