Environmental control for heath processes
For over 100 years, science and technology have been continually improved. The oil industry has always been one of the enthusiasts of inventing and developing tools and equipment not only economically evolved but also environmentally friendly. In 1980, low oil prices forced oil technology to focus on economic efficiency and productivity. At the same time, environmental monitoring pressure is also added as a new factor in the oil engineering economy: the cost of working in environmental constraints. In 1990, the industry has made significant advances in pollution control. The progress made is based on the following indicators:
Since 1970, greenhouse gas emissions have dropped by 25% from six major pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, suspended solids, carbon monoxide, and lead). At the same time, the United States argued that gross domestic product (GDP) increased by 161%, with 42% growth, and vehicle travel by 149%.
Since the early 1990s, emissions of poisonous substances have dropped by almost 24%.
- The annual mortality rate of the wetland has dropped from about 500,000 hectares a year to about three decades averaged to less than 100,000 hectares per year since 1986.
- Between 1991 and 1997, the volume of 17 of the most toxic chemicals in hazardous waste was reduced by 44%.
- In the North Sea, the total discharge of pollutants has declined by about 3,000 tons annually since 1996. This is while water evacuation has increased by 15%.
- The industry’s environmental costs over the last decade averaged $ 9 billion per year, most of which was spent on exploration, estimated at more than the entire EPA budget.
Behind these and other public indicators of environmental performance, technological advances – changes and improvements in the process of oil fields.
Some new technologies directly control pollution. However, many technological advancements are primarily aimed at increasing productivity, but indirectly improving environmental performance. The technological advances made in 1990 increased the average exploration of new oil and gas reserves by seven times compared with the late 1980s. The average oil and gas access rate, as shown in Figure 2-2, has risen more than four times on average. In addition, the success rate of exploration increased from 27% in 1980 to more than 42% in 2000-2003.
The advancements in this technology have indirectly resulted in some environmental benefits such as:
- Drilling fewer wells for extraction. Today, the US industry uses domestic reserves two to four times more oil and gas per well than the 1980s.
- Production of lower drilling waste volume. Today, the same level of additions saved up to 35% of the generated waste.
- Leave a smaller footprint. Also, the average footprint site today is 30% of its size in 1970, and through the use of open access drill, as well as moderate, you can now call the subsurface area more than 60 times higher.
The observations above show that environmental performance can be linked to improved productivity and overall technological progress, so it should not be considered as a separate and expensive commitment that has no return on investment. Moreover, this will make the technology progress, which will increase productivity while protecting the environment.
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