Applications Of Genetic Engineering

Introduction:-Applications Of Genetic Engineering Biotechnology is looked upon as one of the most promising branches of science. And it is Genetic Engineering that makes most biotechnological applications possible. Genetic engineering is the direct human manipulation of an organism’s genome using modern DNA technology

Applications Of Genetic Engineering

 

Article Contain Information And Applications

  • Genetically modified organism (GMO)  
  • Genetically engineered organism (GEO) 
  • Genetically Modified microbes
  • Genetically Modified Crops
  • Genetically modified foods (GM foods or GMO foods)
  • Golden Rice
  • Transgenic Animals
  • The Glow Fish
  • Fruit flies
  • Mosquitoes
  • Mammals
  • Cnidarians
  • GENETIC ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE
  • The Artificial Blood
  • Cloned Pigs Modified for Use in Human Transplants
  • Genetically Engineered FSH
  • BIOFUEL- AN ALTERNATIVE
  • Biodiesel
  • BIOWEAPON – A CHALLENGE

Humans have altered the genomes of species for thousands of years through artificial selection and more recently mutagenesis. Genetic engineering as the direct manipulation of DNA by humans outside breeding and mutations has only existed since the 1970s. Humans have altered the genomes of species for thousands of years through artificial selection and more recently mutagenesis. Genetic engineering as the direct manipulation of DNA by humans outside breeding and mutations has only existed since the 1970s. The most common form of genetic engineering involves the insertion of new genetic material at an unspecified location in the host genome




Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industry, and medicine. This project seeks to focus on some most promising areas of biotechnological applications…

Genetically modified organism (GMO)  

genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically engineered organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. These techniques, generally known as recombinant DNA technology, use DNA molecules from different sources, which are combined into one molecule to create a new set of genes. This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it modified or novel genes. Transgenic organisms, a subset of GMOs, are organisms which have inserted DNA that originated in a different species

GMOs are used in biological and medical research, production of pharmaceutical drugs, experimental medicine (e.g. gene therapy), and agriculture (e.g. golden rice). The term “genetically modified organism” does not always imply, but can include, targeted insertions of genes from one species into another. For example, a gene from a jellyfish, encoding a fluorescent protein called GFP, can be physically linked and thus co-expressed with mammalian genes to identify the location of the protein encoded by the GFP-tagged gene in the mammalian cell.

  1. Genetically Modified microbes

Bacteria were the first organisms to be modified in the laboratory, due to their simple genetics. These organisms are now used for several purposes and are particularly important in producing large amounts of pure human proteins for use in medicine. Genetically are used to produce the protein insulin to treat diabetes. Similar bacteria have been used to produce clotting factors to treat hemophilia and human growth hormone to treat various forms of dwarfism. Bacteria synthesize products such as;

Genetically modified virus

  • Insulin
  • Hepatitis B vaccine
  • Tissue plasminogen activator
  • Human growth hormone
  • Ice-minus bacteria
  • Interferons

In materials science, a genetically modified virus has been used to construct more environmentally friendly lithium-ion battery.

Genetically modified bacteria

Gene therapy uses genetically modified viruses to deliver genes that can cure disease into human cells. Although gene therapy is still relatively new, it has had some successes. It has been used to treat genetic disorders such as severe combined immunodeficiency.

In 2004, researchers reported that a genetically-modified virus that exploits the selfish behavior of cancer cells might offer an alternative way of killing tumors




Genetically Modified Crops

Transgenic plants have been engineered to possess several desirable traits, such as resistance to pests, herbicides, or harsh environmental conditions, improved product shelf life, and increased nutritional value. Since the first commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants in 1996, they have

Genetically modified foods

been modified to be tolerant to the herbicides glufosinate and glyphosate, to be resistant to virus damage as in Ring spot virus-resistant GM papaya, grown in Hawaii, and to produce the Bt toxin, an insecticide that is non-toxic to mammals. Most GM crops grown today have been modified with “input traits”, which provide benefits mainly to farmers.

Golden Rice

is a transgenic variety of rice, with genes for the synthesis of b-carotene taken from the temperate garden favorite Narcissus pseudonarcissus (daffodil) and inserted into the genome of a temperate strain of rice, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the vector, to effect the transfer.   The gene construct also contains some genes for enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway of b-carotene, from another bacterium  Erwinia uredovora

Genetically modified foods (GM foods or GMO foods) are foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Genetically modified organisms have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering techniques. These techniques are much more precise than mutagenesis (mutation breeding) where an organism is exposed to radiation or chemicals to create a non-specific but stable change. Other techniques by which humans modify food organisms include selective breeding; plant breeding, and animal breeding, somaclonal variation

GM foods were first put on the market in 1996. Typically, genetically modified foods are transgenic plant products: soybean, corn, canola, and cottonseed oil. Animal products have also been developed, although as of July 2010 none are currently on the market In 2006 a pig was controversially engineered to produce omega-3 fatty acids through the expression of a roundworm gene. Researchers have also developed a genetically-modified breed of pigs that are able to absorb plant phosphorus more efficiently, and as a consequence, the phosphorus content of their manure is reduced by as much as 60%.

Critics have objected to GM foods on several grounds, including safety issues, ecological concerns, and economic concerns raised by the fact these organisms are subject to intellectual property law

Genetically Engineered Roses Genetically Engineered Roses Genetically Engineered Roses




Genetically Engineered Roses

 Transgenic Animals

A transgenic animal is one that carries a foreign gene that has been deliberately inserted into its genome. The foreign gene is constructed using recombinant DNA methodology. In addition to the gene itself, the DNA usually includes other sequences to enable it to be incorporated into the DNA of the host and to be expressed correctly by the cells of the host. Transgenic animals are used as experimental models to perform phenotypically and for testing in biomedical research. Genetically Modified (Genetically Engineered) animals are becoming more vital to the discovery and development of cures and treatments for many serious diseases

Transgenic Animals

Some examples are: Human-alpha-1-antitrypsin, which has been developed in sheep and is used in treating humans with this deficiency and transgenic pigs with human-histo-compatibility have been studied in the hopes that the organs will be suitable for transplant with fewer chances of rejection. Transgenic livestock has been used as bioreactors since the 1990s. Many medicines, including insulin and many immunizations, are developed in transgenic animals

The Glow Fish,

a fluorescent red zebrafish sold as a novel pet has become the first transgenic animal sold to U.S. consumers. In 1999, Dr. Zhiyuan Gong and his colleagues at the National University of Singapore were working with a gene called green fluorescent protein (GFP), originally extracted from a jellyfish, that naturally produced bright green fluorescence

Fruit flies

In biological research, transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) are model organisms used to study the effects of genetic changes on development.[Fruit flies are often preferred over other animals due to their short life cycle, low maintenance requirements, and relatively simple genome compared to many vertebrates

Transgenic Rat

Mosquitoes

In 2010, scientists created “malaria-resistant mosquitoes” in the laboratory. The World Health Organization estimated that Malaria killed almost one million people in 2008. Genetically modified male mosquitoes containing a lethal gene have been developed in order to combat the spread of Dengue fever. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the single most important carrier of dengue fever

Hybrid Animals

Mammals

Genetically modified mammals are an important category of genetically modified organisms. Transgenic mice are often used to study cellular and tissue-specific responses to disease

Cnidarians

Cnidarians

Cnidarians such as Hydra and the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis have become attractive model organisms to study the evolution of immunity and certain developmental processes. An important technical breakthrough was the development of procedures for generation of stably transgenic hydras and sea anemones by embryo microinjection

GENETIC ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE

Genetic engineering is becoming a major force in conventional medicine. It has got numerous applications in medicine ranging from vaccines to transgenic organ transplants

The Artificial Blood

The artificial blood is a genetically engineered form of hemoglobin, the complicated protein that enclosed in red blood cells–carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body. Many companies have been searching for artificial blood because of the annual worldwide shortage of about 100 million units of blood and the military’s need for blood replacements that can be stored in field conditions without refrigeration. Artificial blood also would virtually eliminate the risk of contracting AIDS, hepatitis and other viral diseases through transfusions

The Artificial Blood




Cloned Pigs Modified for Use in Human Transplants

Two competing teams have cloned pigs that have been genetically modified to produce organs more suitable for transplantation into humans.
Pig organs are well suited for transplantation; they are approximately the same size as human organs and have similar plumbing, which makes reconnecting blood vessels much easier. Also, the size of pig litters tends to be large and pigs reproduce quickly, raising the prospect of a large supply of “spare” organs. A problem with using pig organs, however, is that they are coated with sugar molecules that trigger acute rejection in people. Human antibodies attach themselves to these sugar molecules and quickly destroy the newly transplanted pig organ

Genetically Engineered FSH

FSH is produced by the pituitary gland and directly stimulates the ovaries to recruit and support ovarian follicles, each containing one egg. The hypothalamus adjusts the production of FSH depending upon the levels of other hormones such as estrogen.
FSH is used in stimulated IUI and assisted reproductive technology cycles (IVF) because it causes the development of numerous follicles

BIOFUEL- AN ALTERNATIVE

Algae Biofuel Technology

Algae fuel

might be an alternative to fossil fuel and uses algae as its source of natural deposits. Several companies and government agencies are funding efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. Harvested algae, like fossil fuel, release CO2 when burnt but unlike fossil fuel, the CO2 is taken out of the atmosphere by the growing algae. High oil prices, competing demands between foods and other biofuel sources

BIOFUELAN ALTERNATIVE

Biodiesel

Currently, most research into efficient algal-oil production is being done in the private sector, but predictions from small scale production experiments bear out that using algae to produce biodiesel may be the only viable method by which to produce enough automotive fuel to replace current world diesel usage. If algae-derived biodiesel were to replace the annual global production of 1.1bn tons of conventional diesel, a landmass of 57.3 million hectares would be required

A CHALLENGE Genetic Engineering

developments in biotechnology, genetics, and genomics are undoubtedly creating a variety of environmental, ethical, political and social challenges for advanced societies. But they also have severe implications for international peace and security because they open up tremendous avenues for the creation of new biological weapons

By using genetic engineering, biological researchers have already developed new weapons that are much more effective than their natural counterparts. Countless examples from the daily work of molecular biologists could be presented here, not least the introduction of antibiotic resistance into bacterial pathogens, which today is routine work in almost any microbiology laboratory

Microbes that are composed of synthetic or artificial components, such as DNA or RNA or codons or amino acids can be tailored for use as biological warfare agents. As examples, if DNA used cDNA were to be coupled with synthetic codons,

CONCLUSION

the promising aspects of Genetic Engineering that can bring about tremendous changes in human life. However, the manipulation of living organisms by the human race cannot go on any further without regulation. Some ethical standards are required to evaluate the morality of all human activities that might help or harm living organisms. Going beyond the morality of such issues the biological significance of such things is also important. Genetic modification of organisms can have unpredictable results when such organisms are introduced into the ecosystem

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