ANIMAL CELL CULTURE MEDIA, COMPOSITION, TYPES
WhyAnimal Cell Culture?
we can define to animal cell culture as in vitro or lab propagation or growth of animal cells under controlled condition. for this procedure require an essential step to culturing to cells celled media selection for appropriate growth of cells. purpose of media to keep the availability of all essential nutrients to cells for its growth freely. animal cells can use to both type of media can artificial media and natural media.
That contains all fully defined media components. so also called defined media. the media should be maintained to physiological pH at 7 .also should be sterilized before use.
In this include body fluid like serum, plasma, amniotic fluid, etc. but before required to test toxicity. in this also include tissue extracts like liver, spleen etc.
Serum-free media- the main advantage of this media id can control to growth by changes in the composition of media. that also has thy factory witch help in cell differentiation.
- A culture media has many constituents in the different amount which are essential to the growth of cells.
- Natural buffer- HEPES (chemical buffer) and phenol red as pH indicator.
- Inorganic salts- help in balance to the osmotic pressure of cells, like potassium, calcium etc.
- Amino acids– included for synthesizing proteins by cells.
- Carbohydrates– work as an energy source like glucose.
- Vitamins- for the proliferation and growth of cultured cells.
- Antibiotics– to avoid cells by infection through microbes like bacteria and viruses.
ANIMAL CELL CULTURE MEDIA COMPOSITION
Cell culture is a great process to culture to animal cells but for this media is an important step in the process. all type of media composes of many essential components which used by cells for growth proliferation and differentiate during culture. media constitutes are-
- Inorganic salt
- Amino acids
- Trace elements
- Proteins and peptides
- Buffers (control pH)
Carbohydrates and Vitamins- Carbohydrate is the natural energy source for media is used in form of glucose, galactose mostly. vitamins in media are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation and not be synthesized by cells during culture.
Inorganic Salt and Amino Acids- Inorganic salts help to retain the osmotic balance of cells for this used potassium, and calcium ions in media. and amino acids they include for proteins synthesis by cells because of cell unable to synthesize them mostly L- glutamine used in media.
Antibiotics and Trace Elements- antibiotics used to avoid to culture from microbial contaminants, like viruses, fungal, bacterial. etc. trace elements used mostly for serum-free media in this include copper, selenium, zinc etc.
Proteins and Peptides- most proteins and peptide-like transferrin, fibronectin, and albumin used in cell culture media.
Buffers- Natural buffer, HEPES, phenol red comes under this. witch balanced to gaseous content of the medium. and some for regulate pH level, phenol redwork as pH indicator in the medium.
Preparation of Medium– For this, all components should be in the appropriate quantity and may be sterilized. and prepared liquid medium by using sterilized water.
ANIMAL CELL CULTURE MEDIA TYPES
Media is very important to any cell culture, many media are available in the market. witch divided into four parts-
- Natural media
- Artificial media
- Serum-free media-
- Serum media
Natural Media- in this type of media used tissue extract, like the liver, spleen, bone marrow, chick embryo extract and other body fluids like amniotic fluid and lymph fluid etc.
Artificial media/ defined media– the basic benefit of this media is that has all define nutrients. but pH of this should be the approx 7. purpose of this type media using that provided all known nutrients to cells. we also can include some other nutrients which cause cell proliferation and differentiation.
Serum-free media- in this media using the serum as a nutrient base for cells .benefits of this we can control to cell growth and also include cell proliferation factor and differentiation factors in it. but this has also disadvantage like slow growth rate, and require regents totally pure conditions.
Serum media- Is the example of natural media. the role of this in cell culture is very complex that also has some growth inhibitor witch affect to cell culture. serum help to cell attachment and work as a spreading factor in culture. this work ad in culture albumin carrier factor, that help in reduced to mechanical damage and also work as a natural buffering agent, also help to maintain pH of media.
but this has some dis-advantage like create to high risk of contamination by microbe’s like the virus, and that no have uniformity in composition, that also has growth inhibitor factor causes inhibit to the growth of cultured cells.
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