Agriwaste As Biofuels And Synthetic Fuels
Agriwaste As Biofuels
Agricultural waste could be used as biofuel. Straw-powered cars could be a thing of the future thanks to new research. A new study pinpoints five strains of yeast capable of turning agricultural by-products, such as straw, sawdust, and corncobs, into bioethanol — a well-known alcohol-based biofuel.
In the current era, the world is dependent on fossil fuels such as oil coal, natural gas, etc. The demand for fossil fuels increases day by day due to an increase in urbanization and industrialization. Excessive use of fossil fuels results in environmental pollution especially in terms of the generation of greenhouse gases. Natural sources of energy like wind, water, sun, biomass, and geothermal heat can be utilized for fossil fuel production, and petroleum-based foods can be replaced by biomass-based fuels as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, etc.
Biodiesel production from food crops
Biodiesel production from food crops is no more an attractive option due to food versus fuel issue. The utilization of lignocellulosic waste from agriculture serves as a better alternative looking to its lower cost, renewability, and abundance. Lignocellulosic waste includes grasses, sawdust, wood chips, etc. Rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw, and sugarcane bagasse are the major agricultural wastes. This chapter aims to present a brief overview of the available and accessible technologies for bioethanol production using these major lignocellulosic agro-waste.
Synthetic fuel or synfuel is a liquid fuel, or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the syngas was derived from gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming of natural gas.
Synthetic fuel or synfuel is a liquid fuel or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the syngas was derived from gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming of natural gas
methods for refining synthetic fuels
Common methods for refining synthetic fuels include the Fischer–Tropsch conversion, methanol to gasoline conversion, or direct coal liquefaction.
The term ‘synthetic fuel‘ or ‘synfuel’ has several different meanings and it may include different types of fuels. More traditional definitions, such as the definition given by the International Energy Agency, define ‘synthetic fuel’ or synfuel’ as any liquid fuel obtained from coal or natural gas. In its Annual Energy Outlook 2006, the Energy Information Administration defines synthetic fuels as fuels produced from coal, natural biomass feedstocks through chemical conversion into synthetic crude and/or synthetic liquid products. Several synthetic fuel’s definitions include fuels produced from biomass and industrial and municipal waste.
Synthetic fuels are produced by the chemical process of conversion. Conversion methods could be Direct conversion into liquid transportation fuels, or indirect conversion, in which the source substance is converted initially into syngas which then goes through an additional conversion process to become liquid fuels. Basic conversion methods include carbonization and pyrolysis, hydrogenation, and thermal dissolution.